Institut für Mangostan & natürliche Antioxidantien

LYCOPIN (Lycopene)

Aktuelle wissenschaftliche Studien | 151-170

151: Br J Nutr. 2007 Jul;98(1):140-6. Epub 2007 Mar 29.
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Lycopene from heat-induced cis-isomer-rich tomato sauce is more bioavailable than from all-trans-rich tomato sauce in human subjects.

Unlu NZ, Bohn T, Francis DM, Nagaraja HN, Clinton SK, Schwartz SJ.

Department of Food Science and Technology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

Lycopene is present mainly as cis-isomers in human serum and tissues whereas all-trans-lycopene predominates in tomato products, suggesting that all-trans-lycopene is isomerised in the body or is less bioavailable. The objectives of the present study were to develop processing conditions for tomatoes to obtain products with different cis-trans-lycopene isomer distribution and to assess their bioavailability. Healthy adult subjects (n 12) were recruited for this randomised cross-over trial. Each intervention was preceded by a 2-week washout period. Two tomato sauces, one rich in all-trans-lycopene (32.5 mg total lycopene/100 g sauce; 5 % cis-isomers), the other high in cis-lycopene (26.4 mg total lycopene/100 g sauce; 45 % cis-isomers), were produced by different heat-processing techniques. Each sauce (150 g) was served in a standardised meal at 08.00 hours after overnight fasting. Plasma TAG-rich lipoprotein fractions over 9.5 h following test-meal consumption as a measure of lycopene absorption were obtained and expressed as baseline-corrected area under the concentration v. time curves (AUC), using HPLC-electrochemical detection. AUC values adjusted for the amount lycopene consumed showed that total, total cis-, and all-trans-lycopene responses were significantly higher from the cis-isomer-rich sauce, compared with the all-trans-rich sauce, being 7.30 (sem 1.45) v. 4.74 (sem 1.08) nmol x h/l (P = 0.002), 3.80 (sem 0.76) v. 1.98 (sem 0.37) nmol x h/l (P = 0.0005) and 3.50 (sem 0.76) v. 2.76 (sem 0.76) nmol x h/l (P = 0.01), respectively. The present study demonstrates significant lycopene bioavailability from cis-lycopene-rich tomato sauce and highlights the importance of considering isomer-distribution for lycopene bioavailability. Furthermore, processing parameters can be controlled to alter isomer patterns of tomato products and influence lycopene bioavailability.

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PMID: 17391568 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

152: Br J Nutr. 2007 Jul;98(1):187-93. Epub 2007 Mar 19.
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Intake of specific carotenoids and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer.

Zhang M, Holman CD, Binns CW.

School of Population Health, the University of Western Australia, Crawley, Perth, WA, Australia.

There has been considerable interest in the role of carotenoids in the chemoprevention of cancer. However, few studies have examined the association between intake of specific carotenoids and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer and the results for carotenoids have been inconclusive. To investigate whether the intake of alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin, and lycopene is inversely associated with ovarian cancer risk, a case-control study was conducted in China during 1999-2000. The cases were 254 patients with histologically confirmed epithelial ovarian cancer and 652 age-matched controls were randomly recruited during the same period. Habitual dietary intake and lifestyle were collected by face-to-face interview using a validated and reliable FFQ. The US Department of Agriculture nutrient composition database was used to calculate the intake of specific carotenoids. Unconditional logistic regression analyses were used to estimate OR and 95 % CI, accounting for age, locality, education, BMI, smoking, tea drinking, parity, oral contraceptive use, hormone replacement therapy, menopausal status, family history of ovarian cancer, physical activity and energy intake. Compared with the highest v. the lowest quartile of intake, the adjusted OR were 0.39 (95 % CI 0.23, 0.66) for alpha-carotene, 0.51 (95 % CI 0.31, 0.84) for beta-carotene, 0.51 (95 % CI 0.31, 0.83) for beta-cryptoxanthin, 0.45 (0.27, 0.76) for lutein and zeaxanthin, and 0.33 (95 % CI 0.20, 0.56) for total carotenoids, with statistically significant tests for trend. It is concluded that a higher intake of carotenoids can reduce the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer.

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PMID: 17367574 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

153: Br J Nutr. 2007 Jul;98(1):226-32. Epub 2007 Mar 19.
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The use of fetal bovine serum as delivery vehicle to improve the uptake and stability of lycopene in cell culture studies.

Lin CY, Huang CS, Hu ML.

Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC.

Tetrahydrofuran (THF) has commonly been used to deliver carotenoids to cells but the use of THF is associated with cytotoxicity and low uptake efficiency of carotenoids. Here, we used fetal bovine serum (FBS) as the delivery vehicle for lycopene in comparison with THF, THF containing 0.0025 % butylated hydroxytoluene (THF/BHT), methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (M-beta-CD) and micelles in two human prostate cancer cell lines, DU145 and PC-3. Lycopene (10 mM) solubilized in THF/BHT and then diluted in FBS at ratios of 5 and 10 gave the highest lycopene uptake in DU145 cells. Using a dilution factor of 10, we found that lycopene (10 microm) carried in FBS in a cell-free system led to significantly less loss of lycopene than in THF, THF/BHT and M-beta-CD within 24 h of incubation. Lycopene solubilized in micelles was more stable than that in FBS within 24 h, but the micelle itself led to marked cytotoxicity to DU145 cells. Lycopene at 10 microm in FBS led to significantly higher uptake of lycopene in both cell lines than that in THF, THF/BHT or M-beta-CD within 24 h of incubation. When FBS was replaced with lipoprotein-deficient serum, the uptake of lycopene by DU145 cells was markedly decreased and was not significantly different from that of THF or THF/BHT. These results demonstrate that FBS is superior to THF, THF/BHT, M-beta-CD and micelles as a delivery vehicle for lycopene in prostate cell lines and that the lipoprotein of FBS is likely responsible for the improved stability and cellular uptake of lycopene.

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PMID: 17367572 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

154: Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007 Jul;16(7):1428-36.
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Associations of antioxidant nutrients and oxidative DNA damage in healthy African-American and White adults.

Watters JL, Satia JA, Kupper LL, Swenberg JA, Schroeder JC, Switzer BR.

Department of Nutrition, Division of Digestive Diseases and Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina USA.

High antioxidant intake has been shown to reduce cancer risk and may also mitigate the effects of oxidative DNA damage, which is hypothesized to be causally linked to carcinogenesis. This study examined potential racial differences in (a) dietary intakes and plasma concentrations of vitamin C, vitamin E, and carotenoids and oxidative DNA damage and (b) associations between plasma antioxidants and oxidative DNA damage. Data were from a cross-sectional study of 164 generally healthy nonsmoking African-Americans and Whites in North Carolina, ages 20 to 45 years, equally distributed by race and sex. Participants completed a demographic and health questionnaire, four 24-h dietary recalls, and a dietary supplement inventory; had height and weight measured; and provided a semifasting blood sample. African-Americans had statistically significantly lower plasma concentrations of vitamin E, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and lutein + zeaxanthin than Whites, as well as lower self-reported intake of most antioxidants. Levels of oxidative DNA damage, measured using the alkaline comet assay, were lower in African-Americans than Whites. An inverse association between lycopene and oxidative DNA damage (r = -0.20; P = 0.03) was found in the combined study population after adjusting for sex, age, body mass index, passive smoke exposure, physical activity, education, income, and alcohol intake. There was also a positive association of vitamin E with oxidative DNA damage in the total population (r = 0.21; P = 0.02) and in African-American men (r = 0.63; P = 0.01) after adjusting for covariates. This study is among the first to examine these associations in a sample of healthy adults with an adequate representation of African-Americans.

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PMID: 17627008 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

155: Carcinogenesis. 2007 Jul;28(7):1567-74. Epub 2007 Apr 9.
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Apo-10'-lycopenoic acid inhibits lung cancer cell growth in vitro, and suppresses lung tumorigenesis in the A/J mouse model in vivo.

Lian F, Smith DE, Ernst H, Russell RM, Wang XD.

Nutrition and Cancer Biology Laboratory, Jean Mayer United States Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, 711 Washington Street, Boston, MA 02111, USA.

High intake of lycopene has been associated with a lower risk of a variety of cancers including lung cancer. We recently showed that lycopene can be converted to apo-10'-lycopenoids [Hu et al. (2006). J. Biol. Chem., 281, 19327-19338] in mammalian tissues both in vitro and in vivo, raising the question of whether apo-10'-lycopenoids have biological activities against lung carcinogenesis. In the present study, we report that apo-10'-lycopenoic acid inhibited the growth of NHBE normal human bronchial epithelial cells, BEAS-2B-immortalized normal bronchial epithelial cells and A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells. This inhibitory effect of apo-10'-lycopenoic acid was associated with decreased cyclin E, inhibition of cell cycle progression from G(1) to S phase and increased cell cycle regulators p21 and p27 protein levels. In addition, apo-10'-lycopenoic acid transactivated the retinoic acid receptor beta (RARbeta) promoter and induced the expression of RARbeta. We further examined the effect of apo-10'-lycopenoic acid treatment on 4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridal)-1-butanone (NNK)-induced lung tumorigenesis in the A/J mouse model. We found that the lung tumor multiplicity was decreased dose dependently from an average of 16 tumors per mouse in the NNK injection alone group, to an average of 10, 7 and 5 tumors per mouse in groups injected with NNK and supplemented with 10, 40 and 120 mg/kg diet of apo-10'-lycopenoic acid, respectively. These observations demonstrate that apo-10'-lycopenoic acid is a biological active metabolite of lycopene and suggest that apo-10'-lycopenoic acid is a potential chemopreventive agent against lung tumorigenesis.

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PMID: 17420169 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

156: Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jul;61(7):906-15. Epub 2006 Dec 20.
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Development of a tomato-based food for special medical purposes as therapy adjuvant for patients with HCV infection.

Vitaglione P, Fogliano V, Stingo S, Scalfi L, Caporaso N, Morisco F.

Department of Food Science, University of Naples Federico II, Parco Gussone, Portici (NA), Italy.

OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to develop a food for special medical purposes (FSMP) and to assess its efficacy as adjuvant therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). DESIGN: Open randomized clinical trials with a tomato-based FSMP used as adjuvant treatment to the pharmacological therapy with pegilated interferon and ribavirin. SUBJECTS: Eight healthy volunteers and 39 HCV patients. INTERVENTIONS: For the bioavailability study, healthy subjects consumed 100 g/die FSMP for a week and their serum carotenoid profile at baseline, after the week of administration and 7 days later was determined. The same quantity of FSMP for 6 months by 20 of the 39 HCV patients was consumed in the clinical trial. Serum transaminase, haemoglobin (Hb) and hydroperoxide concentrations during the therapy were monitored in all patients. RESULTS: FSMP consumption caused a fourfold increase of lycopene serum concentration in healthy subjects. A significant increase of carotenoids after 1 month of consumption also in patients with HCV was recorded. Transaminase and Hb serum levels, as well as therapeutic response, were not influenced by FSMP. The decrease in serum hydroperoxides was independent from FSMP consumption in long-term responder patients, whereas nonresponder (NR) patients of FSMP group showed higher reductions than NR patients of Control group. CONCLUSIONS: The FSMP was effective in improving carotenoid status in healthy subjects. In HCV patients, it did not influence the therapeutic response, but it prevented carotenoid serum depletion and it was effective in improving the oxidative status during antiviral therapy in NR patients.

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PMID: 17180159 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

157: J Am Diet Assoc. 2007 Jul;107(7):1218-23.
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Acculturation in the United States is associated with lower serum carotenoid levels: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

Stimpson JP, Urrutia-Rojas X.

Department of Social and Behavioural Sciences, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX 76107-2699, USA.

This study examined the association of acculturation in the United States and serum carotenoid levels. The design was a cross-sectional, nationally representative survey of 16,539 participants, 17 years of age and older, from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). The main outcome measures were serum levels of alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin, lycopene, and total carotenoids. Multivariate linear regression was used to model the association of serum carotenoids and country of birth, language of interview, and years in the United States. Adjustments were made for age, sex, years of education, race/ethnicity, body mass index, alcohol use, physical activity, serum cotinine, serum cholesterol, and vitamin/mineral usage. Individuals born in the United States who speak English had the lowest levels of carotenoids, and individuals born in Mexico had the highest levels of carotenoids, with the exception of lycopene. Years of residence in the United States was associated with lower alpha-carotene (4.18 vs 1.51), beta-carotene (20.21 vs 14.87), beta-cryptoxanthin (12.51 vs 8.95), lutein/zeaxanthin (25.15 vs 18.03), and total carotenoids (88.79 vs 75.44). Years residence in the United States was positively associated with higher lycopene levels (26.69 vs 32.03). Acculturation in the United States was associated with lower fruit and vegetable intake, as measured by serum carotenoid levels.

PMID: 17604755 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

158: J Asthma. 2007 Jul-Aug;44(6):429-32.
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Plasma lycopene and antioxidant vitamins in asthma: the PLAVA study.

Riccioni G, Bucciarelli T, Mancini B, Di Ilio C, Della Vecchia R, D'Orazio N.

Human Nutrition, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University G. D'Annunzio, and Respiratory Pathophysiology Center, SS Annunziata Hospital, Chieti, Italy.

OBJECTIVE: Scientific evidence suggests that lycopene and antioxidant vitamins have significant antioxidant and protective effects. METHODS: This case-control study included 96 subjects (40 asthmatics, 56 healthy control subjects). Baseline blood samples, pulmonary function tests, and clinical and alimentary histories were collected. All subjects were grouped by age, sex, cigarette smoking habit, body mass index, alimentary intake, and atopic status. RESULTS: Serum lycopene concentration was significantly lower in asthmatic subjects than in healthy control subjects (0.10+/-0.7 micromoL/L vs. 0.16+/-0.8 micromoL/L--p<0.001). Serum vitamin A concentration was significantly lower in asthmatics (2.38+/-0.37 micromoL/L) in respect to control subjects (3.06+/-0.56 micromoL/L) (p<0.01). Plasma serum concentration of vitamin E and beta-carotene were not found to be different in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary supplementation or adequate intake of lycopene and vitamin A rich foods may be beneficial in asthmatic subjects.

PMID: 17654127 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

159: J Nutr Biochem. 2007 Jul;18(7):449-56. Epub 2006 Oct 17.
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Lycopene inhibits matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression and down-regulates the binding activity of nuclear factor-kappa B and stimulatory protein-1.

Huang CS, Fan YE, Lin CY, Hu ML.

Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan, Republic of China.

The carotenoid lycopene has been associated with decreased risks of several types of cancer, such as hepatoma. Although lycopene has been shown to inhibit metastasis, its mechanism of action is poorly understood. Here, we used SK-Hep-1 cells (from a human hepatoma) to test whether lycopene exerts its anti-invasion activity via down-regulation of the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, an important enzyme in the degradation of basement membrane in cancer invasion. The activity and expressions of MMP-9 protein and mRNA were detected by gelatin zymography, Western blotting and RT-PCR, respectively. The binding abilities of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB), activator protein-1 and stimulatory protein-1 (Sp1) to the binding sites in the MMP-9 promoter were measured by the electrophoretic mobility shift assay. We showed that lycopene (1-10 microM) significantly inhibited SK-Hep-1 invasion (P<.05) and that this effect correlated with the inhibition of MMP-9 at the levels of enzyme activity (r(2)=.94, P<.001), protein expression (r(2)=.80, P=.007) and mRNA expression (r(2)=.94, P<.001). Lycopene also significantly inhibited the binding abilities of NF-kappaB and Sp1 and decreased, to some extent, the expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and the intracellular level of reactive oxygen species (P<.05). The antioxidant effect of lycopene appeared to play a minor role in its inhibition of MMP-9 and invasion activity of SK-Hep-1 cells because coincubation of cells with lycopene plus hydrogen peroxide abolished the antioxidant effect but did not significantly affect the anti-invasion ability of lycopene. Thus, lycopene decreases the invasive ability of SK-Hep-1 cells by inhibiting MMP-9 expression and suppressing the binding activity of NF-kappaB and Sp1. These effects of lycopene may be related to the down-regulation of IGF-1R, while the antioxidant activity of lycopene appears to play a minor role.

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PMID: 17049831 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

160: Metab Eng. 2007 Jul;9(4):337-47. Epub 2007 Apr 12.
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Multi-dimensional gene target search for improving lycopene biosynthesis in Escherichia coli.

Jin YS, Stephanopoulos G.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.

Identification of multiple gene targets that exhibit different modes of action toward a desired phenotype is a crucial step in strain improvement. Target identification methods based on traceable genetic perturbations and stoichiometric modeling have been employed before for the mining of putative overexpression and knock-out targets. Most search methods are sequential and, as such, quite limited in the space they can explore. In this study, we investigate a multi-dimensional search approach whereby unknown interactions of gene targets identified by different search methods are assessed by employing orthogonal search strategies. To this end, we combined knock-out and overexpression gene targets, identified through systematic and combinatorial approaches, respectively, in order to improve lycopene production in Escherichia coli. Specifically, we first identified multiple overexpression targets by screening genomic libraries of E. coli in a sequential-iterative manner. Targets so identified confirmed previously amplified genes in the non-mevalonate pathway (dxs and idi) and some regulatory genes (rpoS and appY). Additionally, this method revealed novel gene targets (yjiD, ycgW, yhbL, purDH, and yggT). A two-dimensional search was subsequently undertaken, whereby the selected overexpression targets were combined with the knock-out targets predicted by stoichiometric modeling. All combinations of single (rpoS, appY, yjiD, ycgW, and yhbL), double (yjiD-ycgW) and triple (yjiD-ycgW-yhbL) overexpressions with four gene deletion backgrounds, including single (delta gdhA, or delta aceE), double (delta gdhA delta aceE), and triple (delta gdhA delta aceE delta fdhF) knockouts, were constructed and evaluated for lycopene production. Investigation of the metabolic landscape spanned by these 40 strains identified the best-engineered strain (T5(P)-dxs, T5(P)-idi, rrnB(P)-yjiD-ycgW, delta gdh delta aceE delta fdhF, pACLYC), which accumulated 16,000 ppm (16 mg/g cell) of lycopene within 24 h in a batch shake flask with 5 g/L of glucose in M9 minimal medium.

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PMID: 17509919 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

161: Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2007 Jul;17(6):448-56. Epub 2006 Jun 30.
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Low plasma levels of oxygenated carotenoids in patients with coronary artery disease.

Lidebjer C, Leanderson P, Ernerudh J, Jonasson L.

Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, S-581 85 Linköping, Sweden. <>

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Low circulating levels of carotenoids have been associated with cardiovascular disease. The distribution of different carotenoids in blood may have an impact on the cardioprotective capacity. The aim of the present study was to determine the plasma levels of 6 major carotenoids in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and relate the findings to clinical, metabolic and immune parameters. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma levels of oxygenated carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin) and hydrocarbon carotenoids (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lycopene) were determined in 39 patients with acute coronary syndrome, 50 patients with stable CAD and 50 controls. Serological assays for inflammatory activity and flow cytometrical analysis of lymphocyte subsets were performed. Both patient groups had significantly lower plasma levels of oxygenated carotenoids, in particular lutein+zeaxanthin, compared to controls. Low levels of oxygenated carotenoids were associated with smoking, high body mass index (BMI), low high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and, to a minor degree, inflammatory activity. Plasma levels of lutein+zeaxanthin were independently associated with the proportions of natural killer (NK) cells, but not with other lymphocytes, in blood. CONCLUSION: Among carotenoids, lutein+zeaxanthin and beta-cryptoxanthin were significantly reduced in CAD patients independent of clinical setting. The levels were correlated to a number of established cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, the relationship between NK cells and lutein+zeaxanthin may indicate a particular role for certain carotenoids in the immunological scenario of CAD.

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PMID: 17134954 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

162: Biochem Pharmacol. 2007 Jun 30;74(1):54-63. Epub 2007 Mar 24.
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Lycopene binds PDGF-BB and inhibits PDGF-BB-induced intracellular signaling transduction pathway in rat smooth muscle cells.

Lo HM, Hung CF, Tseng YL, Chen BH, Jian JS, Wu WB.

School of Medicine, Fu-Jen Catholic University, Taipei County, Taiwan.

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) result from the sub-endothelial accumulation of inflammatory cells and smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Lycopene, a natural compound from tomato, has been suggested to play a role in CVD prevention. However, its action mechanism is still largely unknown. In this study, we examined the effect of lycopene on SMCs. We found that preincubation of PDGF-BB with lycopene resulted in a marked inhibition on PDGF-BB-induced PDGF receptor-beta (PDGFR-beta), PLCgamma, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in rat A10 SMCs and primary cultured aortic SMCs. In striking contrast, lycopene did not influence EGF-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Surprisingly, further analysis indicates that lycopene could directly bind PDGF-BB and inhibit PDGF-BB-SMC interaction, as determined by dot binding assay and Western blotting. In functional studies, lycopene inhibited PDGF-BB-induced SMC proliferation and migration toward gelatin and collagen at concentrations ranging from 2 to 10 microM. On the contrary, lycopene did not inhibit bFGF- and VEGF-induced endothelial cell migration. Gelatin zymography demonstrated that lycopene's effect on SMC migration was not due to the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Taken together, our results provide the first evidence showing that lycopene inhibits PDGF-BB-induced signaling, proliferation and migration in rat A10 and aortic SMCs. One of the action mechanisms is that lycopene is capable of binding PDGF-BB and inhibiting its interaction with SMC, which is quite different from those previously developed PDGFR-beta antagonists. The results presented here may help us to better understand the beneficial effects of lycopene in CVD prevention.

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PMID: 17449016 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

163: J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Jun 27;55(13):5123-30. Epub 2007 Jun 2.
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Encapsulation of lycopene extract from tomato pulp waste with gelatin and poly(gamma-glutamic acid) as carrier.

Chiu YT, Chiu CP, Chien JT, Ho GH, Yang J, Chen BH.

Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Fu Jen University, Taipei 242, Taiwan.

Tomato pulp waste, a byproduct obtained during the processing of tomato juice, has been shown to be a rich source of lycopene. The objectives of this study were to use gelatin and poly(gamma-glutamic acid) (gamma-PGA) as coating materials for the encapsulation of lycopene extract from tomato pulp waste. Initially, lycopene was extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide, followed by microencapsulation using an emulsion system consisting of 4.5% gelatin, 10% gamma-PGA, and 4.8% lycopene extract. Analysis of differential scanning calorimetry revealed that the thermal stability of the coating material could be up to 120 degrees C, with a mean particle size of 38.7 microm based on Coulter counter analysis. The total weight of microencapsulated powder was 617 microg with the yield of lycopene being 76.5%, indicating a 23.5% loss during freeze drying. During storage of microencapsulated powder, the concentrations of cis-, trans-, and total lycopene decreased along with increasing time and temperature. A fast release of lycopene in the powder occurred at pH 5.5 and 7.0, while no lycopene was released at pH 2.0 and 3.5.

PMID: 17542604 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

164: Cancer Res. 2007 Jun 15;67(12):5987-96. Epub 2007 Jun 6.
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Hawaii cohort study of serum micronutrient concentrations and clearance of incident oncogenic human papillomavirus infection of the cervix.

Goodman MT, Shvetsov YB, McDuffie K, Wilkens LR, Zhu X, Franke AA, Bertram CC, Kessel B, Bernice M, Sunoo C, Ning L, Easa D, Killeen J, Kamemoto L, Hernandez BY.

Cancer Research Center of Hawaii, University of Hawaii, HI 96813, USA.

The degree to which the resolution of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection parallels exposure to other factors, particularly those related to nutritional status, is a relatively unexplored area of research. We established a cohort of women for long-term follow-up to examine the association of serum retinol, carotenoid, and tocopherol concentrations with the clearance of incident cervical HPV infection. Interviews and biological specimens were obtained at baseline and at 4-month intervals. At each visit, a cervical cell specimen for HPV DNA analysis and cytology and a fasting blood sample to measure micronutrient levels were collected. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to study the relationship between clearance of 189 incident (type-specific) oncogenic HPV infections and the levels of 20 serum micronutrients among 122 women. Higher circulating levels of trans-zeaxanthin, total trans-lutein/zeaxanthin, cryptoxanthin (total and beta), total trans-lycopene and cis-lycopene, carotene (alpha, beta, and total), and total carotenoids were associated with a significant decrease in the clearance time of type-specific HPV infection, particularly during the early stages of infection (<or=120 days). HPV clearance time was also significantly shorter among women with the highest compared with the lowest serum levels of alpha-tocopherol and total-tocopherol, but significant trends in these associations were limited to infections lasting <or=120 days. Clearance of persistent HPV infection (lasting >120 days) was not significantly associated with circulating levels of carotenoids or tocopherols. Results from this investigation support an association of micronutrients with the rapid clearance of incident oncogenic HPV infection of the uterine cervix.

PMID: 17553901 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

165: Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jun;85(6):1634-42.
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Fruit and vegetable intakes, dietary antioxidant nutrients, and total mortality in Spanish adults: findings from the Spanish cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Spain).

Agudo A, Cabrera L, Amiano P, Ardanaz E, Barricarte A, Berenguer T, Chirlaque MD, Dorronsoro M, Jakszyn P, Larrañaga N, Martínez C, Navarro C, Quirós JR, Sánchez MJ, Tormo MJ, González CA.

Unit of Epidemiology, Catalan Institute of Oncology, Institute of Biomedical Research of Bellvitge, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain.

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic data suggest that persons with diets rich in fruit and vegetables are at a lower risk of several chronic diseases and mortality than are persons with diets poor in fruit and vegetables. Often, this effect is attributed to antioxidant micronutrients found in plant foods. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the relation of mortality to the consumption of fruit, vegetables, and other plant foods and to the dietary intake of vitamin C, vitamin E, and carotenoids. DESIGN: The study was a prospective study in the Spanish cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. During 6.5 y of follow-up, 562 deaths occurred in 41 358 subjects aged 30-69 y. Proportional hazards regression analysis was used to assess the relation between dietary factors and total mortality. RESULTS: After adjustment for age, sex, and several potential confounders, the hazard ratio for the highest versus the lowest quartile of consumption was 0.79 (95% CI: 0.62, 1.00; P for trend = 0.029) for fresh fruit, 0.72 (0.56, 0.91; P for trend = 0.006) for root vegetables, and 0.77 (0.60, 0.98; P for trend = 0.015) for fruiting vegetables (ie, vegetables that contain the "fruit" part of the plant, the seeds). The corresponding figures for antioxidant nutrients were 0.74 (0.58, 0.94; P for trend = 0.009) for vitamin C, 0.68 (0.53, 0.87; P for trend = 0.006) for provitamin A carotenoids, and 0.65 (0.51, 0.84; P for trend 0.001) for lycopene. The effect of vitamin C and provitamin A disappeared after adjustment for total antioxidant capacity in plant foods. CONCLUSIONS: A high intake of fresh fruit, root vegetables, and fruiting vegetables is associated with reduced mortality, probably as a result of their high content of vitamin C, provitamin A carotenoids, and lycopene. Antioxidant capacity could partly explain the effect of ascorbic acid and provitamin A but not the association with lycopene.

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PMID: 17556703 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

166: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007 Jun;75(4):879-87. Epub 2007 Feb 23.
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Differential expression of carotenogenic genes and associated changes in pigment profile during regeneration of Haematococcus pluvialis cysts.

Vidhyavathi R, Venkatachalam L, Kamath BS, Sarada R, Ravishankar GA.

Plant Cell Biotechnology Department, Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore, 570 020, India,

Haematococcus pluvialis is a green alga known to accumulate astaxanthin in extra-plastidic lipid vesicles under stress conditions. The present study revealed the influence of few cultural parameters and temperature treatments on regeneration efficiency of red cysts along with changes in pigment profile and expression of carotenogenic genes during regeneration. Regeneration efficiency has been improved by incubating less aged cyst cells in a medium containing ammonium carbonate, 16:8 light-dark cycle with a light intensity of 30 mumol m(-2) s(-1). During regeneration, there was a decrease in total astaxanthin, total carotenoids, and carotenoid to chlorophyll ratio, and increase in beta-carotene, lutein, total chlorophyll, and chlorophyll a to b ratio. Expression analysis revealed the presence of transcripts of carotenogenic genes, phytoene synthase (PSY), phytoene desaturase (PDS), lycopene cyclase (LCY), beta-carotene ketolase (BKT), and beta-carotene hydroxylase (CHY) in cyst cells, and these transcripts were up regulated transiently upon transfer to favorable conditions. As the culture growth progressed, carotenogenic gene expressions were decreased and reached basal expression levels of green motile vegetative cells. In addition, this is the first report of detection of carotenogenic gene transcripts in red cysts, and their differential expression during regeneration. The present study suggests the use of red cysts as alternate inoculum for mass cultivation to combat protozoan predation.

PMID: 17318532 [PubMed - in process]

167: Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2007 Jun;100(6):398-402.
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Effect of lycopene on nephrotoxicity induced by mercuric chloride in rats.

Augusti PR, Conterato GM, Somacal S, Einsfeld L, Ramos AT, Hosomi FY, Graça DL, Emanuelli T.

Post-graduate Program on Biochemical Toxicology, Center of Natural and Exact Sciences, Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil.

Oxidative stress is an important molecular mechanism for kidney injury in mercury poisoning. We studied lycopene, a potent carotenoid found in tomatoes due to its large antioxidant properties, and also evaluated the ability of lycopene to prevent HgCl(2) nephrotoxicity. Rats were injected with HgCl(2) (0 or 5 mg/kg body weight, subcutaneously) 6 hr after lycopene administration (0, 10, 25 or 50 mg/kg by gavage) and were killed 12 hr after HgCl(2) exposure. HgCl(2)-induced inhibition of delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase activity (approximately 35%) and increase of lipid peroxidation in kidney (approximately 37%) were prevented by lycopene. However, lycopene did not prevent the increase of plasma creatinine levels (approximately 123%) and renal tubular necrosis induced by HgCl(2). Glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities were enhanced (approximately 71% and approximately 41%), while superoxide dismutase activity was depressed (approximately 44%) in HgCl(2)-treated rats when compared to control and these effects were prevented by lycopene. Our results indicate that although lycopene did not prevent HgCl(2)-induced renal failure, it could play a beneficial role against HgCl(2) toxicity by preventing lipid peroxidation and changes in the activity of delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase and antioxidant enzymes.

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PMID: 17516994 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

168: Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2007 Jun;100(6):372-6.
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Lycopene, a carotenoid, attenuates cyclosporine-induced renal dysfunction and oxidative stress in rats.

Ateşşahin A, Ceribaşi AO, Yilmaz S.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Firat University, Elaziğ, Turkey.

The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of antioxidant treatment with lycopene on cyclosporine A-induced nephrotoxicity using biochemical and histopatological approaches. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups. The control group received physiological saline; animals in the lycopene group received only lycopene (10 mg/kg); animals in the cyclosporine A group received only cyclosporine A (15 mg/kg) and animals in cyclosporine plus lycopene group received cyclosporine and lycopene for 21 days. The effects of lycopene on cyclosporine A-induced nephrotoxicity were evaluated by plasma creatinine, urea, sodium and calcium concentrations; kidney tissue thiobarbituric acid reactive species, reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase activities and histopatological examinations. Administration of cyclosporine A to rats induced a marked renal failure, characterized with a significant increase in plasma creatinine and urea concentrations. Cyclosporine A also induced oxidative stress as indicated by increased kidney tissue concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive species and GSH, and reduced activities of GSH-Px and catalase. Moreover, the kidneys of cyclosporine A-treated rats showed tubular necrosis, degeneration, dilatation, thickened basement membranes, luminal cast formation and inter-tubular fibrosis. Lycopene markedly reduced elevated plasma creatinine, urea levels and counteracted the deleterious effects of cyclosporine A on oxidative stress markers. In addition, lycopene ameliorated cyclosporine A-induced pathological changes including tubular necrosis, degeneration, thickened basement membranes and inter-tubular fibrosis when compared to the alone cyclosporine A group. These data indicate that the natural antioxidant lycopene might have protective effect against cyclosporine-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress in rat.

PMID: 17516989 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

169: Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007 Jun;1770(6):902-11. Epub 2007 Feb 9.
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Evaluation of the antioxidant effects of carotenoids from Deinococcus radiodurans through targeted mutagenesis, chemiluminescence, and DNA damage analyses.

Tian B, Xu Z, Sun Z, Lin J, Hua Y.

Institute of Nuclear-Agricultural Sciences, Zhejiang University, No.268, Kaixuan Road, 310029 Hangzhou, China.

Deinococcus radiodurans is highly resistant to reactive oxygen species (ROS). The antioxidant effect of carotenoids in D. radiodurans was investigated by using a targeted mutation of the phytoene synthase gene to block the carotenoid synthesis pathway and by evaluating the survival of cells under environmental stresses. The colorless mutant R1DeltacrtB of D. radiodurans failed to synthesize carotenoids, and was more sensitive to ionizing radiation, hydrogen peroxide, and desiccation than the wild type, suggesting that carotenoids in D. radiodurans help in combating environmental stresses. Chemiluminescence analyses showed that deinoxanthin, a major product in the carotenoid synthesis pathway, had significantly stronger scavenging ability on H2O2 and singlet oxygen than two carotenes (lycopene and beta-carotene) and two xanthophylls (zeaxanthin and lutein). Deinoxanthin also exhibited protective effect on DNA. Our findings suggest that the stronger antioxidant effect of deinoxanthin contribute to the resistance of D. radiodurans. The higher antioxidant effect of deinoxanthin may be attributed to its distinct chemical structure which has an extended conjugated double bonds and the presence of a hydroxyl group at C-1' position, compared with other tested carotenoids.

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PMID: 17368731 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

170: BJU Int. 2007 Jun;99(6):1456-60. Epub 2007 Mar 2.
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The effects of dietary lycopene supplementation on human seminal plasma.

Goyal A, Chopra M, Lwaleed BA, Birch B, Cooper AJ.

Urology Research Group, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, UK.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether lycopene levels in blood and seminal plasma increase after dietary supplementation with a natural source of the compound, and whether any potential increase of lycopene levels in semen translates into increased free-radical trapping capacity in the seminal plasma. METHODS: Reactive oxygen species are detrimental to the health and function of spermatozoa. Semen contains enzymatic and non-enzymatic defence mechanisms to combat such species, and lycopene, a dietary antioxidant, forms part of the non-enzymatic arm. Immuno-infertile men have significantly lower levels of lycopene in their semen, and oral lycopene therapy can improve various seminal variables in idiopathic infertility. Whether this improvement is a direct consequence of increased lycopene levels in semen, resulting in an increased radical scavenging ability, remains unknown. Blood and seminal lycopene levels were measured in healthy volunteers, using high-performance liquid chromatography, before and after a period of dietary supplementation. The antioxidant capacity of seminal plasma was also assayed to determine if supplementation results in a measurable increase in seminal radical scavenging ability. RESULTS: There were statistically significant increases in blood and seminal plasma lycopene levels after dietary supplementation. The increase in seminal and blood lycopene levels showed a strong positive correlation (r = 0.84, P < 0.05). There was no measurable increase in the total radical scavenging capacity of semen. CONCLUSION: This study confirms the presence of lycopene in human semen, the levels of which can be significantly increased after dietary supplementation with a natural source of lycopene. Further studies to establish whether this would also be the case in infertile men, with possible associated improvements in their seminal quality, are warranted.

PMID: 17484766 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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