Institut für Mangostan & natürliche Antioxidantien

LYCOPIN (Lycopene)

Aktuelle wissenschaftliche Studien | 51-70

51: Urology. 2008 Feb 14. [Epub ahead of print]
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The Men's Eating and Living (MEAL) Study: A Cancer and Leukemia Group B Pilot Trial of Dietary Intervention for the Treatment of Prostate Cancer.

Parsons JK, Newman V, Mohler JL, Pierce JP, Paskett E, Marshall J.

Moores Cancer Center, University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, California.

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the feasibility of implementing a diet-based intervention in men with prostate cancer. METHODS: Seventy-four men aged 50 to 80 years with biopsy-proven adenocarcinoma of the prostate were randomized to receive either telephone-based dietary counseling or standardized, written nutritional information. Telephone dietary counseling targets included increased intakes of vegetables (particularly cruciferous vegetables and tomato products), whole grains, and beans/legumes. Dietary intakes and plasma carotenoid levels were assessed at baseline and at 6 months' follow-up. RESULTS: In the intervention arm, mean daily intakes of total vegetables, crucifers, tomato products, and beans/legumes increased by 76%, 143%, 292%, and 95%, respectively, whereas fat intake decreased by 12% (P = 0.02). In the control arm, there were no significant changes in mean intakes of total vegetables, tomato products, crucifers, beans/legumes, or fat. Similarly, in the intervention arm, mean plasma levels of alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lutein, lycopene, and total carotenoids increased by 33%, 36%, 19%, 30%, and 26%, respectively (P <0.05). In the control arm, there were no significant changes in plasma levels of alpha- or beta-carotene, lutein, lycopene, or total carotenoids. CONCLUSIONS: Telephone-based dietary counseling increases vegetable intake, decreases fat intake, and significantly increases plasma levels of potentially anticarcinogenic carotenoids in men with prostate cancer. These data support the feasibility of implementing clinical trials of dietary intervention in men with prostate cancer.

PMID: 18280560 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

52: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2008 Feb;78(1):131-7. Epub 2007 Dec 1.
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Lycopene over-accumulation by disruption of the negative regulator gene crgA in Mucor circinelloides.

Nicolás-Molina FE, Navarro E, Ruiz-Vázquez RM.

Departamento de Genética y Microbiología, Facultad de Biología, Universidad de Murcia, 30071, Murcia, Spain.

Lycopene has become one of the most interesting antioxidant compounds, especially in relation to human health. This work describes a genetic strategy to modify the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway to develop a lycopene-overproducing strain. The crgA gene, a negative regulator of carotenogenesis, was disrupted in the Mucor circinelloides strain MU202, which lacks the lycopene cyclase activity and accumulates lycopene instead of beta-carotene. The resultant strain, MU224, demonstrated increased transcriptional levels of the carotenogenesis structural genes carRP and carB compared to the parental strain MU202. As a consequence, strain MU224 accumulated 5 mg/g of dry weight of cells in liquid cultures, a sevenfold increase with respect to the parental strain. Moreover, when lycopene production was examined in a complex enriched medium, biomass increased tenfold compared to that obtained in synthetic minimal medium. In this complex medium, the production rate of lycopene by strain MU224 reached 54 g/l. These results illustrate how a combination of genetic manipulation and optimized culture conditions can be utilized to enhance the production of commercially desirable compounds such as lycopene.

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PMID: 18060399 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

53: Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2008 Feb;46(2):176-80.
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All-E lutein and 3'-epilutein in the epidermis of chronic arsenic poisoning.

Misbahuddin M, Momin A, Al-Amin M.

Division of Arsenic Research, Department of Pharmacology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Identification and quantification of carotenoids in the epidermis of nine patients of chronic arsenic poisoning were done using isocratic reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The major carotenoids in all the skin biopsies were all-E lutein and 3'-epilutein. Small amount of 2',3'-anhydrolutein, all-E zeaxanthin, and 13-Z zeaxanthin were also present in some of the biopsy samples. Alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and lycopene were not detected in any sample. The mean (+/- SD) concentration of all-E lutein in the epidermis of healthy volunteers was 1.09 +/- 0.26 microgram/g of wet tissue, whereas it was only 0.29 +/- 0.10 microgram/g in the diffuse dark brown spots of chronic arsenic poisoning. In raindrop-shaped discoloration spots of skin the mean concentration of all-E lutein was 0.86 +/- 0.29 microgram/g of wet tissue. The difference between the concentrations of all-E lutein in the epidermis of healthy volunteers versus patients was for the diffuse dark brown spots statistically significantly (p < 0.05) lower, while this was not significant for the raindrop-shaped discoloration spots. This study suggests that arsenic exposure reduces the number, as well as concentrations of, carotenoids in skin.

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PMID: 17852168 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

54: FEBS J. 2008 Feb;275(3):527-35. Epub 2007 Dec 21.
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Phytoene synthase genes in tomato (Solanumlycopersicum L.) - new data on the structures, the deduced amino acid sequences and the expression patterns.

Giorio G, Stigliani AL, D'Ambrosio C.

Metapontum Agrobios, Metaponto, Italy.

The fruit of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is a berry: red, fleshy and rich in seeds. Its colour is due to the high content of lycopene whose synthesis is activated by the phytoene synthase 1 (PSY1) enzyme, encoded by Psy1 which is distinct from Psy2. In the present study, we report on the genomic structures of the Psy1 and Psy2 genes and on their transcription patterns in different tomato tissues. Our results have completely clarified the structure of the Psy1 and Psy2 genes in the coding sequence region. The two genes were shown to have an highly conserved structure, with seven exons being almost identical and six introns being much more variable. For Psy1 and Psy2, respectively, the sequenced regions were 4527 and 3542 bp long, the coding sequences were 1239 bp and 1317 bp long, whereas the predicted protein sequences were 412 and 438 amino acids. The two proteins are almost identical in the central region, whereas most differences are present in the N-terminus and C-terminus. Quantitative real time PCR analysis showed that Psy2 transcript was present in all tested plant tissues, whereas Psy1 transcript could be detected in chromoplast-containing tissues, particularly in fruit where it activates and boosts lycopene accumulation. Interestingly, the organ with the highest relative content of Psy2 transcript is the petal and not the leaf. Psy1 is a Psy2 paralog derived through a gene duplication event that have involved other genes encoding rate controlling enzymes of the carotenoid pathway. Duplicate genes have been recruited to allow carotenoid synthesis in petals and fruits. However, recruitment of carotenoid metabolism for fruit pigmentation could have occurred later in the evolution, either because phytoene synthase gene duplication occurred later or because the fruit pigmentation process required a more sophisticated mechanism involving tight control of the transcription of other genes.

PMID: 18167141 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

55: Indian J Exp Biol. 2008 Feb;46(2):108-11.
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Lycopene ameliorates thermal hyperalgesia and cold allodynia in STZ-induced diabetic rat.

Kuhad A, Chopra K.

Pharmacology Research Laboratory, University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences UGC Center of Advanced Studies, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160 014 India.

Peripheral neuropathy is one of the common complications of diabetes mellitus. It is frequently associated with debilitating pain. The present study was designed to investigate effect of Lycopene, a carotenoid found in tomatoes, on hyperalgesia and cold allodynia in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. After 4-weeks of STZ injection, diabetic mice exhibited a significant thermal hyperalgesia cold allodynia, hyperglycemia and loss of body weights as compared with control rats. Chronic treatment of lycopene for 4 weeks significantly attenuated the cold allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. The results emphasize the role of antioxidant such as lycopene as an adjuvant therapy in the treatment of diabetic neuropathy.

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PMID: 18335808 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

56: Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2008 Feb;31 Suppl 1:S102-7. Epub 2007 Oct 24.
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Synergistic effect between lycopene and ciprofloxacin on a chronic bacterial prostatitis rat model.

Han CH, Yang CH, Sohn DW, Kim SW, Kang SH, Cho YH.

Department of Urology, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, St Mary's Hospital, Youngdungpoku, Seoul, South Korea.

Traditionally, long-term antibiotic therapy has been the gold standard treatment for chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP). However, the treatment outcome is not ideal and long-term administration of antibiotics can result in adverse effects and bacterial resistance. For these reasons, both patients and physicians are dissatisfied with the management of this disease and there is interest in phytotherapy and other alternative therapies. Lycopene, an extract of tomatoes, has been reported to have an anti-inflammatory effect via an antioxidative function. To evaluate the therapeutic effect of lycopene on CBP, we developed a CBP rat model treated with ciprofloxacin or lycopene, or both. After 2 weeks of treatment, results of microbiological cultures of the prostate and urine as well as histological findings of the prostate were analysed. The ciprofloxacin group and the lycopene/ciprofloxacin group showed a statistically significant decrease in bacterial growth and improvement in prostatic inflammation compared with the control group. The lycopene/ciprofloxacin group also showed a statistically significant decrease in bacterial growth and improvement in prostatic inflammation compared with the ciprofloxacin group. These results suggest that lycopene may have an additional (synergistic) effect with ciprofloxacin in the treatment of CBP.

PMID: 17920247 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

57: Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2008 Feb;58(Pt 2):404-7.
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Allochromatium renukae sp. nov.

Anil Kumar P, Srinivas TN, Sasikala Ch, Ramana ChV.

Bacterial Discovery Laboratory, Centre for Environment, Institute of Science and Technology, J. N. T. University, Kukatpally, Hyderabad 500 085, India.

An ovoid to rod-shaped, phototrophic, purple sulfur bacterium, designated strain JA136(T), was isolated in pure culture from brackish water near Kakinada, India, in a medium that contained 2 % NaCl (w/v). Cells were Gram-negative and motile by means of a single polar flagellum. Strain JA136(T) had no absolute salt requirement for growth but was able to tolerate up to 4 % NaCl (w/v). Intracellular photosynthetic membranes were of the vesicular type. Bacteriochlorophyll a and the carotenoid lycopene of the rhodopinal series were present as photosynthetic pigments. Strain JA136(T) was able to grow photolithoautotrophically and photolithoheterotrophically. There was no vitamin requirement for growth of strain JA136(T). Phylogenetic analysis on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain JA136(T) clustered with species of the genus Allochromatium in the class Gammaproteobacteria. Strain JA136(T) showed highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with the type strains of Allochromatium vinosum (97.0 %), Allochromatium minutissimum (95.8 %) and Allochromatium warmingii (90.0 %). Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity data and morphological and physiological characteristics, strain JA136(T) was sufficiently distinct from recognized Allochromatium species to be described as representing a novel species of the genus, for which the name Allochromatium renukae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JA136(T) (=JCM 14262(T) =DSM 18713(T)).

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PMID: 18218939 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

58: J Am Diet Assoc. 2008 Feb;108(2):347-56.
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A very-low-fat vegan diet increases intake of protective dietary factors and decreases intake of pathogenic dietary factors.

Dewell A, Weidner G, Sumner MD, Chi CS, Ornish D.

Stanford Prevention Research Center, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

There is increasing evidence that dietary factors in plant-based diets are important in the prevention of chronic disease. This study examined protective (eg, antioxidant vitamins, carotenoids, and fiber) and pathogenic (eg, saturated fatty acids and cholesterol) dietary factors in a very-low-fat vegan diet. Ninety-three early-stage prostate cancer patients participated in a randomized controlled trial and were assigned to a very-low-fat (10% fat) vegan diet supplemented with soy protein and lifestyle changes or to usual care. Three-day food records were collected at baseline (n=42 intervention, n=43 control) and after 1 year (n=37 in each group). Analyses of changes in dietary intake of macronutrients, vitamins, minerals, carotenoids, and isoflavones from baseline to 1 year showed significantly increased intake of most protective dietary factors (eg, fiber increased from a mean of 31 to 59 g/day, lycopene increased from 8,693 to 34,464 mug/day) and significantly decreased intake of most pathogenic dietary factors (eg, saturated fatty acids decreased from 20 to 5 g/day, cholesterol decreased from 200 to 10 mg/day) in the intervention group compared to controls. These results suggest that a very-low-fat vegan diet can be useful in increasing intake of protective nutrients and phytochemicals and minimizing intake of dietary factors implicated in several chronic diseases.

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PMID: 18237581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

59: Nutrition. 2008 Feb;24(2):133-9. Epub 2007 Dec 3.
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Retinol, carotenoids, and tocopherols in the milk of lactating adolescents and relationships with plasma concentrations.

de Azeredo VB, Trugo NM.

Departamento de Nutrição e Dietética, Faculdade de Nutrição, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

OBJECTIVE: We determined the concentrations of retinol, carotenoids, and tocopherols in breast milk of adolescents and evaluated their associations with plasma levels and with maternal characteristics (period of lactation, body mass index, age of menarche, and years postmenarche). METHODS: This was a single cross-sectional survey of retinol, carotenoid, and tocopherol composition of milk and plasma of lactating adolescent mothers (n = 72; 30-120 d postpartum) attending public daycare clinics in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Milk and plasma components were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: Nutrient concentrations (micromoles per liter, mean +/- SE) in plasma and milk were, respectively, retinol 2.1 +/- 0.5 and 0.62 +/- 0.44, beta-carotene 0.18 +/- 0.19 and 0.016 +/- 0.017, alpha-carotene 0.05 +/- 0.04 and 0.0035 +/- 0.002, lutein plus zeaxanthin 0.15 +/- 0.11 and 0.025 +/- 0.024, lycopene 0.1 +/- 0.11 and 0.016 +/- 0.025, alpha-tocopherol 10.8 +/- 5.3 and 2.7 +/- 1.8, gamma-tocopherol 2.6 +/- 2.3 and 0.37 +/- 0.15. The milk/plasma molar ratios of retinol and tocopherols were two times higher than those of carotenoids. Significant correlations (P < 0.001) between milk and plasma nutrient levels were observed for beta-carotene (r = 0.41), alpha-carotene (r = 0.60), and lutein plus zeaxanthin (r = 0.57), but not for lycopene, retinol, and tocopherols. Nutrient concentrations in plasma and in milk were not associated with the maternal characteristics investigated. CONCLUSION: Concentrations of the nutrients studied, especially retinol and alpha-tocopherol, in mature milk of lactating adolescents were, in general, lower than in milk of adult lactating women. Milk concentrations were associated with plasma concentrations only for beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, and lutein plus zeaxanthin.

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PMID: 18053685 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

60: Ophthalmology. 2008 Feb;115(2):334-41. Epub 2007 Jul 30.
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Dietary antioxidants and the long-term incidence of age-related macular degeneration: the Blue Mountains Eye Study.

Tan JS, Wang JJ, Flood V, Rochtchina E, Smith W, Mitchell P.

Department of Ophthalmology, Centre for Vision Research, Westmead Millennium Institute, Westmead Hospital, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

PURPOSE: To assess the relationship between baseline dietary and supplement intakes of antioxidants and the long-term risk of incident age-related macular degeneration (AMD). DESIGN: Australian population-based cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Of 3654 baseline (1992-1994) participants initially 49 years of older, 2454 were reexamined after 5 years, 10 years, or both. METHODS: Stereoscopic retinal photographs were graded using the Wisconsin Grading System. Data on potential risk factors were collected. Energy-adjusted intakes of alpha-carotene; beta-carotene; beta-cryptoxanthin; lutein and zeaxanthin; lycopene; vitamins A, C, and E; and iron and zinc were the study factors. Discrete logistic models assessed AMD risk. Risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated after adjusting for age, gender, smoking, and other risk factors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incident early, late, and any AMD. RESULTS: For dietary lutein and zeaxanthin, participants in the top tertile of intake had a reduced risk of incident neovascular AMD (RR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.13-0.92), and those with above median intakes had a reduced risk of indistinct soft or reticular drusen (RR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.48-0.92). For total zinc intake the RR comparing the top decile intake with the remaining population was 0.56 (95% CI, 0.32-0.97) for any AMD and 0.54 (95% CI, 0.30-0.97) for early AMD. The highest compared with the lowest tertile of total beta-carotene intake predicted incident neovascular AMD (RR, 2.68; 95% CI, 1.03-6.96; P = 0.029, for trend). Similarly, beta-carotene intake from diet alone predicted neovascular AMD (RR comparing tertile 3 with tertile 1, 2.40; 95% CI, 0.98-5.91; P = 0.027, for trend). This association was evident in both ever and never smokers. Higher intakes of total vitamin E predicted late AMD (RR compared with the lowest tertile, 2.83; 95% CI, 1.28-6.23; and RR, 2.55; 95% CI, 1.14-5.70 for the middle and highest tertiles, respectively; P = 0.22, for trend). CONCLUSIONS: In this population-based cohort study, higher dietary lutein and zeaxanthin intake reduced the risk of long-term incident AMD. This study confirmed the Age-Related Eye Disease Study finding of protective influences from zinc against AMD. Higher beta-carotene intake was associated with an increased risk of AMD.

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PMID: 17664009 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

61: J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Jan 23;56(2):483-7. Epub 2007 Dec 20.
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Optimizing sampling of tomato fruit for carotenoid content with application to assessing the impact of ripening disorders.

Darrigues A, Schwartz SJ, Francis DM.

Department of Horticulture and Crop Science, OARDC, The Ohio State University, 1680 Madison Avenue, Wooster, OH 44691, USA.

Color defines one aspect of quality for tomato and tomato products. Carotenoid pigments are responsible for the red and orange colors of tomato fruit, and thus color is also of dietary interest. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the relative importance of field sampling and analytical replication when measuring lycopene and beta-carotene in tomato fruit and (2) to determine the effect of yellow shoulder disorder (YSD) on the content of lycopene and beta-carotene in tomato juice and tissue. Our results show that increasing biological replications is an efficient strategy for reducing the experimental error associated with measurements of lycopene and beta-carotene. Analytical replications did not contribute significantly to observed variation, and therefore experimental efficiency will be gained by reducing analytical replications while increasing field replication. We found that YSD significantly reduces lycopene in affected tissue and in juice made from affected fruit. In contrast, beta-carotene concentrations were only reduced in affected tissue but were not significantly reduced in juice. With increasing interest in biofortified crops, modulating the carotenoid profile in tomato by minimizing YSD symptoms represents a strategy for improving tomato fruit quality that is currently supported by grower contract structure and processor grades.

PMID: 18092756 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

62: Science. 2008 Jan 18;319(5861):330-3.
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Natural genetic variation in lycopene epsilon cyclase tapped for maize biofortification.

Harjes CE, Rocheford TR, Bai L, Brutnell TP, Kandianis CB, Sowinski SG, Stapleton AE, Vallabhaneni R, Williams M, Wurtzel ET, Yan J, Buckler ES.

Institute for Genomic Diversity, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.

Dietary vitamin A deficiency causes eye disease in 40 million children each year and places 140 to 250 million at risk for health disorders. Many children in sub-Saharan Africa subsist on maize-based diets. Maize displays considerable natural variation for carotenoid composition, including vitamin A precursors alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and beta-cryptoxanthin. Through association analysis, linkage mapping, expression analysis, and mutagenesis, we show that variation at the lycopene epsilon cyclase (lcyE) locus alters flux down alpha-carotene versus beta-carotene branches of the carotenoid pathway. Four natural lcyE polymorphisms explained 58% of the variation in these two branches and a threefold difference in provitamin A compounds. Selection of favorable lcyE alleles with inexpensive molecular markers will now enable developing-country breeders to more effectively produce maize grain with higher provitamin A levels.

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PMID: 18202289 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

63: J Phys Chem A. 2008 Jan 10;112(1):117-24. Epub 2007 Dec 11.
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Theoretical study of the enthalpies of formation for C40H56 carotenes.

Tu CY, Guo WH, Hu CH.

Department of Chemistry, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua 50058, Taiwan.

Theoretical study of the enthalpies of formation (DeltaHf) for polyenes up to nine ethylene units and for several C40H56 carotenes including beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene, and prolycopene is presented. For polyenes and small branched alkenes, we used G2, G3, and G3MP2B3 theories, and the DeltaHf values were evaluated with the atomization, isodesmic bond separation, and homodesmic schemes. The applicability of six DFT functionals were evaluated by comparing their predictions with those obtained using G3 theory within the atomization scheme. Additivity approaches, including atom equivalents and group equivalents using DFT and semiempirical theories, were explored. We found that group equivalents associated with isodesmic reactions are able to provide the most accurate predictions within the test set. The predictions from the six functionals are in good agreement with the G3 results. Among them, B3LYP performs the best, with an average absolute deviation of only 0.30 kcal/mol. The application of DFT in the prediction for the DeltaHf value of C40H56 carotenes is promising.

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PMID: 18069804 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

64: Am J Epidemiol. 2008 Jan 1;167(1):42-50. Epub 2007 Oct 10.
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Longitudinal association of serum carotenoids and tocopherols with hostility: the CARDIA Study.

Ohira T, Hozawa A, Iribarren C, Daviglus ML, Matthews KA, Gross MD, Jacobs DR Jr.

Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55454-1015, USA.

Hostility is a personality trait associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease. No study has reported the association between hostility and antioxidants, which may be mediators for atherosclerosis. CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) Study participants were 3,579 men and women 18-30 years of age in 1985-1986. Serum carotenoids and tocopherols were measured at years 0 and 7, and hostility was measured at years 0 and 5. Analysis of covariance was used to test for covariate-adjusted differences in serum carotenoids and tocopherols across quartiles of hostility. After adjustment for age, gender, race, serum lipids, and baseline of the dependent variable, the mean carotenoid values at year 7 of the lowest and highest quartiles of hostility score at year 0 were 3.9 and 3.3 microg/liter for alpha-carotene (p < 0.001), 9.1 and 8.0 microg/liter for beta-cryptoxanthin (p < 0.001), and 50.6 and 46.8 microg/liter for the sum of four carotenoids (p < 0.001). Hostility scores at year 0 were unrelated to year 7 lycopene and tocopherols. In contrast, neither year 0 carotenoids nor tocopherols predicted the hostility score at year 5. High hostility predicted future low levels of some serum carotenoids, which may help to explain the association of hostility and cardiovascular risk observed in other epidemiologic studies.

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PMID: 17928400 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

65: Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Jan;198(1):37.e1-8. Epub 2007 Nov 5.
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Lycopene and other carotenoid intake in relation to risk of uterine leiomyomata.

Terry KL, Missmer SA, Hankinson SE, Willett WC, De Vivo I.

Channing Laboratory, the Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

OBJECTIVE: Carotenoids have antioxidant properties and have been associated with reduced risks of some cancers. We hypothesized that carotenoid intake may reduce the risk of diagnosed uterine leiomyoma (UL). STUDY DESIGN: We evaluated the associations between dietary carotenoids and risk of diagnosed UL in 82,512 premenopausal women aged 26-46 years in 1991 in the Nurses' Health Study II over 10 years of follow-up. Diet was assessed every 4 years with a validated food frequency questionnaire, and incidence of UL was assessed biennially by questionnaire. RESULTS: Total lycopene intake was not associated with diagnosed UL risk. Intake of beta-carotene was associated with slightly increased risks of diagnosed UL; this association was restricted to current smokers (for highest vs lowest quintile, relative risk = 1.36, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.76; P(trend) = .003). CONCLUSION: Overall, our findings do not suggest that carotenoids reduce the risk of diagnosed UL. Among current smokers, high intake of beta-carotene may slightly increase risk of diagnosed UL.

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PMID: 17981250 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID: PMC2390902

66: Am J Ther. 2008 Jan-Feb;15(1):66-81.
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Lycopene in cancer prevention and treatment.

Seren S, Lieberman R, Bayraktar UD, Heath E, Sahin K, Andic F, Kucuk O.

Department of Internal Medicine, Wayne State University, Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, Michigan 48201, USA.

Dietary intake of lycopene is inversely associated with the risk of many cancers. Preclinical studies show that lycopene has potent in vitro and in vivo antitumor effects, suggesting potential preventive and therapeutic roles for the compound. However, clinical trials with lycopene have only recently been started, and available clinical data preclude firm conclusions with regard to its use in cancer prevention and treatment. Further mechanistic studies and randomized controlled clinical intervention trials with lycopene involving cancer patients are warranted.

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PMID: 18223356 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

67: Br J Nutr. 2008 Jan;99(1):137-46. Epub 2007 Jul 19.
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Influence of lycopene and vitamin C from tomato juice on biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation.

Jacob K, Periago MJ, Böhm V, Berruezo GR.

Department of Food Technology, Food Science and Human Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Murcia, 30071, Murcia, Spain.

A human study was carried out to investigate whether tomato juice, rich in natural lycopene and fortified with vitamin C, is able to reduce several biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation and whether the effect can be attributed to lycopene, vitamin C or any other micronutrient. Following a 2-week depletion phase, volunteers were assigned randomly to ingest either tomato juice with (LC) or without (L) vitamin C fortification for 2 weeks (daily dose 20.6 mg lycopene and 45.5/435 mg vitamin C). Plasma and urine were analysed for carotenoids and vitamin C, lipid status, antioxidant capacity, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and 8-epi-PGF2alpha, protein carbonyls, cytokines IL-1beta and TNFalpha and C-reactive protein (CRP). The consumption of tomato juice led to a reduction in total cholesterol levels (L: 157.6 v. 153.2 mg/dl, P = 0.008; LC: 153.4 v. 147.4 mg/dl, P = 0.002) and that of CRP (L: 315.6 v. 262.3 microg/l, P = 0.017; LC: 319.2 v. 247.1 microg/l, P = 0.001) in both groups. The vitamin C-fortified juice slightly raised the antioxidant capacity in urine and decreased TBARS in plasma and urine. All other markers were affected to a lesser extent or remained unchanged. Cholesterol reduction was correlated with lycopene uptake (P = 0.003), whereas the other effects could not be related with particular micronutrients. Any beneficial effects of tomato consumption for human health cannot be attributed only to lycopene and, as the additional supplementation with ascorbic acid indicates, a variety of antioxidants might be needed to optimize protection against chronic diseases.

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PMID: 17640421 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

68: Environ Mol Mutagen. 2008 Jan;49(1):36-45.
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Modulation of gene methylation by genistein or lycopene in breast cancer cells.

King-Batoon A, Leszczynska JM, Klein CB.

The Nelson Institute of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, Tuxedo, New York 10987, USA.

Dietary agents with chemopreventive potential, including soy-derived genistein and tomato-derived lycopene, have been shown to alter gene expression in ways that can either promote or potentially inhibit the carcinogenic processes. To begin to explore the mechanisms by which these agents may be acting we have examined the DNA methylation modulating capacity of genistein or lycopene for several genes relevant to breast cancer in the breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468, as well as in immortalized but noncancer fibrocystic MCF10A breast cells. We find using methylation specific PCR (MSP) that a low, nontoxic concentration of genistein (3.125 microM, resupplemented every 48 hr for 1 week) or a single dose of lycopene (2 microM) partially demethylates the promoter of the GSTP1 tumor suppressor gene in MDA-MB-468 cells. RT-PCR studies confirm a lack of GSTP1 expression in untreated MDA-MB-468, with restoration of GSTP1 expression after genistein or lycopene treatment. The RARbeta2 gene however, was not demethylated by genistein or lycopene in either of these breast cancer cell lines. But, lycopene (2 microM, once per week for 2 weeks) did induce demethylation of RARbeta2 and the HIN-1 genes in the noncancer MCF10A fibrocystic breast cells. These data show for the first time that the tomato carotenoid lycopene has direct DNA demethylating activity. In summary, both genistein and lycopene, at very low, dietarily relevant concentrations can potentially mitigate tumorigenic processes via promoter methylation modulation of gene expression. Copyright (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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PMID: 18181168 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

69: Free Radic Res. 2008 Jan;42(1):94-102.
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Lycopene-rich treatments modify noneosinophilic airway inflammation in asthma: proof of concept.

Wood LG, Garg ML, Powell H, Gibson PG.

Department of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Hunter Medical Research Institute, John Hunter Hospital, Newcastle, NSW, Australia.

Antioxidant-rich diets are associated with reduced asthma prevalence. However, direct evidence that altering intake of antioxidant-rich foods affects asthma is lacking. The objective was to investigate changes in asthma and airway inflammation resulting from a low antioxidant diet and subsequent use of lycopene-rich treatments. Asthmatic adults (n=32) consumed a low antioxidant diet for 10 days, then commenced a randomized, cross-over trial involving 3 x 7 day treatment arms (placebo, tomato extract (45 mg lycopene/day) and tomato juice (45 mg lycopene/day)). With consumption of a low antioxidant diet, plasma carotenoid concentrations decreased, Asthma Control Score worsened, %FEV(1) and %FVC decreased and %sputum neutrophils increased. Treatment with both tomato juice and extract reduced airway neutrophil influx. Treatment with tomato extract also reduced sputum neutrophil elastase activity. In conclusion, dietary antioxidant consumption modifies clinical asthma outcomes. Changing dietary antioxidant intake may be contributing to rising asthma prevalence. Lycopene-rich supplements should be further investigated as a therapeutic intervention.

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PMID: 18324527 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

70: Immunol Invest. 2008;37(3):183-90.
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In vitro effect of lycopene on cytokine production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

Bessler H, Salman H, Bergman M, Alcalay Y, Djaldetti M.

Laboratory for Immunology and Hematology Research, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv, Israel.

There is evidence indicating that regular consumption of tomato products is associated with favorable immunomodulatory effects. In addition, tomato extracts have been shown to possess antioxidant, anticarcinogenic and antithrombotic activity in vitro. Since tomatoes are rich in carotenoids and particularly in lycopene--the pigment responsible for the red color of tomatoes--the present work was designed to examine the in vitro effect of lycopene on cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 15 healthy subjects. First, 2 x 10(6) PBMC suspended in 1 ml of conditioned medium were incubated over a period of 24 and 48 hours without or with the following concentrations of lycopene: 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 microM. The production of the subsequent cytokines was evaluated: IL-1beta, IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-10, as well as TNFalpha and IFNgamma. Lycopene induced a dose-dependent increase in IL1beta, and TNFalpha production and a decrease in IL-2, IL-10 and IFNgamma secretion, whereas that of IL-6 and IL-1ra was not affected. It is concluded that understanding the role of lycopene in modulation of the immune system may promote decisions as for dietary supplementation of lycopene for reducing the risk of certain diseases.

PMID: 18389438 [PubMed - in process]

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