Institut für Mangostan & natürliche Antioxidantien

LYCOPIN (Lycopene)

Aktuelle wissenschaftliche Studien | 91-110

91: Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Nov;61(11):1328-36. Epub 2007 Feb 7.
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Validation of a food frequency questionnaire measurement of selected nutrients using biological markers in African-American men.

Holmes MD, Powell IJ, Campos H, Stampfer MJ, Giovannucci EL, Willett WC.

Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

OBJECTIVE: To validate selected nutrients assessed by the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used in the Harvard cohort studies in an African-American group. DESIGN: Blood aliquots were pooled for each decile of intake of two carotenoids and alpha tocopherol as measured by FFQ. These pooled samples were analyzed for nutrient content, and the resultant blood levels were plotted against the median for each decile of intake. In addition, adipose tissue samples taken from each man were analyzed for content of specific fatty acids. We calculated the Spearman correlations comparing intakes of specific fatty acids as percent of total fat intake, adjusted for energy intake, as measured by FFQ, with the percentage of the corresponding fatty acid in adipose tissue. SUBJECTS AND SETTINGS: African-American men (N=104) with prostate cancer were recruited from a Detroit physician's practice and completed a detailed FFQ. RESULTS: Comparing decile 10 with decile 1 intake of nutrients as measured by FFQ, there was a 32% higher blood level of lycopene, a 288% higher blood level of beta carotene and a 100% higher blood level of alpha tocopherol. The Spearman correlation coefficients between intakes of linoleic acid, alpha linolenic acid, long-chain n-3 fatty acids and trans fatty acid measured by FFQ and the corresponding adipose tissue levels were between 0.10 and 0.47. CONCLUSION: The FFQ was able to distinguish meaningful differences in biochemical measurements of selected nutrients and presumably corresponding differences in the extremes of intake in African-American men with prostate cancer who were likely to be motivated to report accurately. However, the results found are similar to those found in other populations.

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PMID: 17299490 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

92: Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2007 Nov;77(6):398-405.
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Dietary intake of carotenoid isomers in Israel.

Chaiter Y, Rennert G, Fischler R, Rennert HS, Rozen G, Gruber SB, Amotz AB.

Department of Community Medicine and Epidemiology, CHS National Cancer Control Center, Carmel Medical Center, 7 Michal St., Haifa, Israel.

Controversy exists regarding the possible protective role of carotenoids against cancer. Evidence is mainly against all-E-beta-carotene, while there is no evidence against other carotenoids or against mixtures of beta-carotene stereoisomers. Carotenoid isomers could account for the variability in study results but are rarely estimated, and reference to the degree of their consumption is lacking. The aim of our study was to create a comprehensive database of carotenoid isomers content in food items commonly consumed in Israel. Food items were analyzed using a liquid chromatography system to determine the content of carotenoid isomers in Israeli food. The main sources of carotenoids detected in Israeli foods were tomato juice, tomato, watermelon, parsley, coriander, spinach, carrot, sweet potato, banana, zucchini, mango, loquat, pepper, eggplant, and chickpeas. Data were used to measure consumption in healthy participants of a case-control study, using a semi-quantitative food-frequency 187-item questionnaire. Compared to reference studies, the median carotenoid isomers intake in 712 Israeli healthy controls (age range 23-95 years, mean 71 +/- 10.9 years, median 73 years) was higher for beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, and zeaxanthin, while the intake of lycopene was lower. Major differences in consumption were noticed between ethnic groups consuming Mediterranean diets and those consuming Western-type diets. Population consumption patterns of carotenoid isomers using a comprehensive database are used to improve our understanding in disease prevention. Consumption in Israel seems to be generally higher than that reported in studies conducted elsewhere, and varies by ethnic group.

PMID: 18622950 [PubMed - in process]

93: J Am Diet Assoc. 2007 Nov;107(11):1895-902.
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Neighborhood Deprivation is associated with lower levels of serum carotenoids among adults participating in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

Stimpson JP, Nash AC, Ju H, Eschbach K.

Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, Texas 76107-2699, USA.

OBJECTIVE: This study tested the hypothesis that neighborhood deprivation will be associated with lower levels of serum carotenoids in comparison with wealthy residential areas. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, nationally representative survey data were used to assess the relationship between neighborhood level socioeconomic status and serum carotenoids. SUBJECTS: Seventeen thousand two participants aged 17 years and older from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were linked with 1990 census data. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Serum levels of lycopene, beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lutein/zeaxanthin, and beta-cryptoxanthin. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Multivariate linear regression was used to model the association of serum carotenoids and neighborhood deprivation, which is a summary index of 11 indicators for tract level socioeconomic status. Adjustments are made for individual level age, sex, years of education, household income, employment, race/ethnicity, body mass index, serum cotinine, alcohol use, physical activity, and serum cholesterol. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis revealed a negative and statistically significant association between high levels of neighborhood deprivation and beta-carotene (beta=-2.98 microg/dL [-0.06 micromol/L], P=0.00), alpha-carotene (beta=-1.28 microg/dL [-0.02 micromol/L], P=<0.0001), lutein/zeaxanthin (-1.69 microg/dL [-0.03 micromol/L], P=0.00, beta-cryptoxanthin (beta=-1.34 microg/dL [-0.02 micromol/L], P<0.0001), and total carotenoids (beta=-8.20 microg/dL, P=<0.0001). Lycopene was not related to neighborhood deprivation. Adjusted mean levels of carotenoids for high deprivation neighborhoods were lower than neighborhoods with low deprivation: beta-carotene=8.72 microg/dL [0.16 micromol/L] vs 20.64 microg/dL [0.38 micromol/L], alpha-carotene=0.44 microg/dL [0.008 micromol/L] vs 5.56 microg/dL [0.10 micromol/L], lutein/zeaxanthin=13.79 microg/dL [0.24 micromol/L] vs 20.55 microg/dL [0.36 micromol/L], beta-cryptoxanthin=4.57 microg/dL [0.08 micromol/L] vs 9.93 microg/dL [0.18 micromol/L], lycopene=22.07 microg/dL [0.41 micromol/L] vs 25.63 microg/dL [0.48 micromol/L], and total=49.56 microg/dL vs 82.36 microg/dL. CONCLUSIONS: Neighborhood deprivation was associated with lower serum levels of carotenoids. There was a substantial disparity between low deprivation and high deprivation residential areas with respect to fruit and vegetable intake.

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PMID: 17964308 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

94: J Endocrinol Invest. 2007 Nov;30(10):833-8.
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Physiological dose of lycopene suppressed oxidative stress and enhanced serum levels of immunoglobulin M in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus: a possible role in the prevention of long-term complications.

Neyestani TR, Shariatzadeh N, Gharavi A, Kalayi A, Khalaji N.

Laboratory of Nutrition Research, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute and Faculty of Nutritional Sciences and Food Technology, Shaheed Beheshti, University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to evaluate the antioxidant effects of lycopene in physiological doses and its possible effects on the immune response in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 35 patients with T2DM of both sexes aged 54+/-9 yr were enrolled in a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted for 2 months. After a 2-week lycopene-free diet washout period, patients were allocated to either lycopene supplementation group (10 mg/day) (no.=16) or placebo group (no.=19), which were age- and sex matched. Patients were instructed to keep their diet and physical activity as unchanged as possible. RESULTS: While dietary intake of energy and body weight did not change, the ratio of serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) to malondialdehyde (MDA) increased significantly in the lycopene group compared to the placebo group (p=0.007). Though a statistically significant increase in serum concentrations of lycopene (p<0.001) was not accompanied by enhanced delayed-type hypersensitivity response, a significant negative correlation was found between serum levels of lycopene and immunoglobulin (Ig)G (r=-0.338, p=0.008). Interestingly, variations of serum levels of lycopene directly correlated with those of IgM (r=0.466, p=0.005). There was an insignificant decrement in serum anti-oxidized LDL IgG levels in the lycopene group. CONCLUSIONS: Lycopene, probably by increasing TAC and inhibiting MDA-LDL formation, may attenuate T cell-dependent adaptive (pro-atherogenic) immune response. Meanwhile, with enhancement of innate immunity and hence prevention of ox-LDL uptake by macrophage and foam cell formation, lycopene may be effective in prevention of long-term diabetic complications, notably cardiovascular disease.

Publication Types:

PMID: 18075285 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

95: J Food Sci. 2007 Nov;72(9):E532-40.
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Study on lycopene and antioxidant contents variations in tomatoes under air-drying process.

Chang CH, Liu YC.

Dept. of Chemistry Engineering, National Chung-Hsing Univ., 250, Kuo-Kuang Rd, Taichung 402, Taiwan.

Effects of factors such as tomato cultivars, drying temperatures (40, 80, and 120 degrees C), and drying time (0 to 240 min) on tomato lycopene and the major antioxidant contents (MACs, herein as the sum of total phenolics and total flavonoids) during an air-drying process were investigated. The results showed that lycopene contents increased under all the drying temperatures during the first 60 min. However, the red tomato cultivars, that is, HR, SN, and TTL, exhibited a significant decrease in lycopene contents under 120 degrees C after drying for 75 min. According to the experimental data, an MAC threshold value of 500 mg/100 g dry matter of tomato is proposed. When the MAC is lower than this value during air-drying, lycopene contents in all tomato cultivars would drop rapidly. In addition, the tomatoes in yellow color group, containing more MACs initially and retaining more MACs under air-drying at 40 to 80 degrees C, are proposed to be the proper tomato cultivars for thermal processing.

PMID: 18034723 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

96: J Food Sci. 2007 Nov;72(9):C441-51.
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Qualitative and nutritional differences in processing tomatoes grown under commercial organic and conventional production systems.

Barrett DM, Weakley C, Diaz JV, Watnik M.

Dept. of Food Science & Technology, Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95618 USA.

Organically grown products experienced a doubling in percent penetration of organic sales into retail markets during the period from 1997 to 2003; however, there is still a debate over the perceived quality advantage of organically grown fruits and vegetables. In a study focusing on commercial production of processing tomatoes, samples were analyzed from 4 growers with matched organic and conventional fields. For the 4 growers studied, individual analysis of variance results indicated that tomato juice prepared from organically produced tomatoes on some farms was significantly higher in soluble solids ( degrees Brix), higher in consistency, and titratable acidity, but lower in red color, ascorbic acid, and total phenolics content in the microwaved juice. Results were significantly different among specific growers, and this may be attributed to differences in soil type and soil nutrients, tomato cultivar, environmental conditions, or other production-related factors. Higher levels of soluble solids, titratable acidity, and consistency are desirable for the production of tomato paste, in that tomatoes with these attributes may be more flavorful and require less thermal treatment. This has the potential to result both in cost savings from less energy required in paste manufacture and potentially a higher quality product due to less thermal degradation of color, flavor, and nutrients. Future work may involve a larger number of commercial growers and correlation to controlled university research plots.

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PMID: 18034702 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

97: J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007 Nov;17(11):1797-804.
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Damage to the cytoplasmic membrane and cell death caused by lycopene in Candida albicans.

Sung WS, Lee IS, Lee DG.

Department of Microbiology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701, Korea.

Lycopene, an acyclic carotenoid found in tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) and a number of fruits, has shown various biological properties, but its antifungal effects remain poorly understood. The current study investigated the antifungal activity of lycopene and its mode of action. Lycopene showed potent antifungal effects toward pathogenic fungi, tested in an energy-independent manner, with low hemolytic effects against human erythrocytes. To confirm the antifungal effects of lycopene, its effects on the dimorphism of Candida albicans induced by fetal bovine serum (FBS), which plays a key role in the pathogenesis of a host invasion, were investigated. The results showed that lycopene exerted potent antifungal activity on the serum-induced mycelia of C. albicans. To understand the antifungal mode of action of lycopene, the action of lycopene against fungal cell membranes was examined by FACScan analysis and glucose and trehalose-release test. The results indicated that lycopene caused significant membrane damage and inhibited the normal budding process, resulting from the destruction of membrane integrity. The present study indicates that lycopene has considerable antifungal activity, deserving further investigation for clinical applications.

Publication Types:

PMID: 18092463 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

98: Mini Rev Med Chem. 2007 Nov;7(11):1120-8.
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Beneficial or detrimental effects of carotenoids contained in food: cell culture models.

Ranaldi G, Bellovino D, Palozza P, Gaetani S.

National Research Institute on Food and Nutrition, Rome Italy.

Epidemiological studies have suggested a correlation between consumption of carotenoid-rich food and incidence of chronic diseases. In this review chemical structure, bioavailability and mechanisms of action of carotenoids most represented in human diet, mainly beta-carotene and lycopene, are reported, with focus on results obtained with cells in culture.

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PMID: 18045215 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

99: J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Oct 31;55(22):8950-7. Epub 2007 Oct 10.
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Impact of fatty acyl composition and quantity of triglycerides on bioaccessibility of dietary carotenoids.

Huo T, Ferruzzi MG, Schwartz SJ, Failla ML.

Department of Human Nutrition, The Ohio State University, 1787 Neil Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA.

A carotenoid-rich salad meal with varying amounts and types of triglycerides (TG) was digested using simulated gastric and small intestinal conditions. Xanthophylls (lutein and zeaxanthin) and carotenes (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and lycopene) in chyme and micelle fraction were quantified to determine digestive stability and efficiency of micellarization (bioaccessibility). Micellarization of lutein (+zeaxanthin) exceeded that of alpha- and beta-carotenes, which was greater than that of lycopene for all test conditions. Micellarization of carotenes, but not lutein (+zeaxanthin), was enhanced (P < 0.05) by addition of TG (2.5% v/w) to the meal and was dependent on fatty acyl chain length in structured TG (c18:1 > c8:0 > c4:0). The degree of unsaturation of c18 fatty acyl chains in TG added to the salad purée did not significantly alter the efficiency of micellarization of carotenoids. Relatively low amounts of triolein and canola oil (0.5-1%) were required for maximum micellarization of carotenes, but more oil (approximately 2.5%) was required when TG with medium chain saturated fatty acyl groups (e.g., trioctanoin and coconut oil) was added to the salad. Uptake of lutein and beta-carotene by Caco-2 cells also was examined by exposing cells to micelles generated during the simulated digestion of salad purée with either triolein or trioctanoin. Cell accumulation of beta-carotene was independent of fatty acyl composition of micelles, whereas lutein uptake was slightly, but significantly, increased from samples with digested triolein compared to trioctanoin. The results show that the in vitro transfer of alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and lycopene from chyme to mixed micelles during digestion requires minimal (0.5-1%) lipid content in the meal and is affected by the length of fatty acyl chains but not the degree of unsaturation in TG. In contrast, fatty acyl chain length has limited if any impact on carotenoid uptake by small intestinal epithelial cells. These data suggest that the amount of TG in a typical meal does not limit the bioaccessibility of carotenoids.

Publication Types:

PMID: 17927194 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

100: J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Oct 31;55(22):8825-9. Epub 2007 Oct 9.
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Detection of key factors in the extraction and quantification of lycopene from tomato and tomato products.

Periago MJ, Rincón F, Jacob K, García-Alonso J, Ros G.

Dpto. de Tecnología de los Alimento, Nutrición y Bromatología, Facultad de Veterinaria, Campus de Espinardo, 30071-Espinardo (Murcia), Spain.

The analytical process of lycopene extraction and photometrical determination was critically examined for raw tomato and processed tomato products by means of a 2 IV (15-10) Plackett-Burman experimental design in order to identify the key factors (KFs) involved. Fifteen apparent key factors (AKFs) reported in the literature were selected: sample weight (X1); volume of extraction solution (X2); antioxidant concentration (BHT, X3); neutralizing agent concentration (MgCO 3, X4); light presence during lycopene extraction (X5), homogenization velocity (X6) and time (X7), agitation time (X8), and temperature (X9) during the extraction process; water volume for separation of polar/nonpolar phases (X11); presence of inert atmosphere throughout the process (X12); time (X13), temperature (X14), and light presence (X10) during separation of phases and time delay for reading (X15). In general, higher lycopene concentrations in samples led to a higher number of key factors (KF). Thus, for raw tomato (lycopene range 1.22-2.29 mg/100 g) no KF were found, whereas for tomato sauce (lycopene range from 5.80 to 8.60 mg/100 g) one KF (X4) and for tomato paste (lycopene range from 35.80 to 51.27 mg/100 g) five KFs (X1, X2, X4, X11, and X12) were detected. For lycopene paste, X1 and X2 were identified as the KFs with the greatest impact on results, although in fact the X1/X2 ratio was the real cause. The results suggest that, with increased processing, the physical and chemical structure of lycopene becomes less important since the identified KFs explain almost 90% of variability in tomato paste but only 32% in raw tomato.

Publication Types:

PMID: 17924704 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

101: J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Oct 31;55(22):9036-42. Epub 2007 Oct 2.
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Lycopene, vitamin C, and antioxidant capacity of tomato juice as affected by high-intensity pulsed electric fields critical parameters.

Odriozola-Serrano I, Aguiló-Aguayo I, Soliva-Fortuny R, Gimeno-Añó V, Martín-Belloso O.

Department of Food Technology, UTPV-CeRTA, University of Lleida, Rovira Roure 191, 25198 Lleida, Spain.

The effects of high-intensity pulsed electric field (HIPEF) treatment variables (frequency, pulse width, and pulse polarity) on the lycopene, vitamin C, and antioxidant capacities of tomato juice were evaluated using a response surface methodology. An optimization of the HIPEF treatment conditions was carried out to obtain tomato juice with the highest content of bioactive compounds possible. Samples were subjected to an electric field intensity set at 35 kV/cm for 1000 micros using squared wave pulses, frequencies from 50 to 250 Hz, and a pulse width from 1 to 7 micros, in monopolar or bipolar mode. Data significantly fit (P < 0.001) the proposed second-order response functions. Pulse frequency, width, and polarity significantly affected the lycopene, vitamin C, and antioxidant capacities of HIPEF-treated tomato juice. Maximal relative lycopene content (131.8%), vitamin C content (90.2%), and antioxidant capacity retention (89.4%) were attained with HIPEF treatments of a 1 micros pulse duration applied at 250 Hz in bipolar mode. Therefore, the application of HIPEF may be appropriate to achieve nutritious tomato juice.

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PMID: 17907773 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

102: J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Oct 31;55(22):9095-8. Epub 2007 Sep 29.
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Assessment of selected antioxidants in tomato pomace subsequent to treatment with the edible oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, under solid-state fermentation.

Assi JA, King AJ.

Department of Animal Science, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616-8521, USA.

Tomato pomace, delignified by the edible oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, could be used as a poultry feed ingredient to provide alpha-tocopherol for retardation of lipid oxidation in postmortem meat if the antioxidant were retained in pomace after fungal fermentation. Experiments were conducted to investigate changes in the content of alpha-tocopherol, lycopene, and beta-carotene in tomato pomace after sterilization and treatment with P. ostreatus from 0 to 104 days. alpha-Tocopherol (39.26 to 31.15 microg/g) and lycopene (17.42 to 11.19 microg/g) significantly decreased during sterilization while beta-carotene (42.56 to 35.44 microg/g) did not. The content of carotenoids decreased by day 26 as compared to 0 day for the control and for treated samples. alpha-Tocopherol decreased during fungal fermentation at day 26 as compared to 0 day for the control and increased during the same period for treated samples. By 104 days, only alpha-tocopherol in control pomace was present in a significant amount. The alpha-tocopherol content of mushroom fruit grown in pomace (74.10 microg/g) and in wheat straw (51.36 microg/g) was not significantly different. Tomato pomace could be used as a substrate to successfully grow edible mushrooms; however, the initial level of selected antioxidants and their reduction during fungal fermentation must be considered when delignified pomace is utilized for selected nutrient content in animal feed or products for human consumption.

PMID: 17902625 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

103: J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Oct 17;55(21):8604-15.
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Free hydroxycinnamic acids, lycopene, and color parameters in tomato cultivars.

Hernández M, Rodríguez E, Díaz C.

Food Science and Nutrition Area, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Food Science and Nutrition, University of La Laguna, Avenida Astrofísico Sánchez s/n, 38201 La Laguna, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain.

Concentrations of antioxidant compounds (total phenolic compounds, free hydroxycinnamic acids, and lycopene) and color parameters ( a*, b*, and L*) were determined in 167 tomato samples belonging to five cultivars (Dorothy, Boludo, Dunkan, Dominique, and Thomas) produced on the island of Tenerife. Chlorogenic, caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids were identified and quantified in the tomato samples. Chlorogenic acid had the highest mean concentration, whereas the p-coumaric was not detected in almost half of the tomato samples. The cultivar, cultivation method, and production region had little influence on the concentration of analyzed parameters. Considerable seasonal variations in the levels of these parameters were observed. Many correlations were observed between the antioxidant compounds and color parameters. The tomato samples tended to be differentiated according to the sampling period when discriminant analysis was applied.

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PMID: 17927150 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

104: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007 Oct;76(5):991-9. Epub 2007 Jul 4.
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Ubiquinone and carotene production in the Mucorales Blakeslea and Phycomyces.

Kuzina V, Cerdá-Olmedo E.

Departamento de Genética, Facultad de Biología, Apartado 1095, Universidad de Sevilla, E-41080, Seville, Spain.

The filamentous fungi Phycomyces blakesleeanus and Blakeslea trispora (Zygomycota, Mucorales) are actual or potential industrial sources of beta-carotene and lycopene. These chemicals and the large terpenoid moiety of ubiquinone derive from geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate. We measured the ubiquinone and carotene contents of wild-type and genetically modified strains under various conditions. Light slightly increased the ubiquinone content of Blakeslea and had no effect on that of Phycomyces. Oxidative stress modified ubiquinone production in Phycomyces and carotene production in both fungi. Sexual interaction and mutations in both organisms made the carotene content vary from traces to 23 mg/g dry mass, while the ubiquinone content remained unchanged at 0.3 mg/g dry mass. We concluded that the biosyntheses of ubiquinone and carotene are not coregulated. The specific regulation for carotene biosynthesis does not affect even indirectly the production of ubiquinone, as would be expected if terpenoids were synthesized through a branched pathway that could divert precursor flows from one branch to another.

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PMID: 17609943 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

105: Aust Fam Physician. 2007 Oct;36(10):791.
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Healthy diet, healthy heart, healthy prostate.

Ting-Wei Chiang D.

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PMID: 18046782 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

106: Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007 Oct;16(10):2008-15.
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Plasma and dietary carotenoids are associated with reduced oxidative stress in women previously treated for breast cancer.

Thomson CA, Stendell-Hollis NR, Rock CL, Cussler EC, Flatt SW, Pierce JP.

Department of Nutritional Sciences and Arizona Cancer Center, University of Arizona, Shantz Building, Room 328, 1177 East 4th Street, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA.

Dietary carotenoids show numerous biological activities, including antioxidant activity, induction of apoptosis, and inhibition of mammary cell proliferation. Studies examining the role of carotenoid consumption in relation to breast cancer recurrence are limited and report mixed results. We tested the hypothesis that breast cancer survivors with high dietary and plasma carotenoids would show significantly lower levels of oxidative stress than breast cancer survivors with low dietary and plasma carotenoid levels. Two hundred seven postmenopausal breast cancer survivors from the Women's Healthy Eating and Living Study volunteered for this ancillary study. Dietary data were analyzed by the Arizona Food Frequency Questionnaire and plasma carotenoids alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lutein plus zeaxanthin, lycopene, and beta-cryptoxanthin and quantified with high-performance liquid chromatography, and immunoaffinity chromatography-monoclonal antibody-based ELISAs were used to analyze the urine samples for 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OhdG) and 8-iso-prostaglandin-F2alpha (8-iso-PGF2alpha). The correlations between dietary and plasma carotenoids were 0.34 for beta-carotene, 0.46 for alpha-carotene, 0.39 for beta-cryptoxanthin, 0.27 for lycopene, 0.30 for lutein plus zeaxanthin, and 0.30 for total carotenoids. The 8-OHdG oxidative stress biomarker was significantly reduced at the highest quartile of total plasma carotenoid concentrations (P = 0.001) and 8-iso-PGF2alpha was moderately reduced (P = 0.088). Dietary carotenoid levels were not significantly associated with oxidative, stress indicators, although dietary lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin were modestly associated with 8-OHdG levels (P = 0.054 and 0.088, respectively). Key findings include a significant inverse association between total plasma carotenoid concentrations and oxidative stress as measured by urinary 8-OHdG and a moderately significant inverse association with 8-iso-PGF2alpha, a protective association that was not shown for dietary carotenoid intake.

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PMID: 17932348 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

107: Ceska Gynekol. 2007 Oct;72(5):326-9.
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[Lycopene therapy in male infertility]

[Article in Czech]

Oborná I, Fingerová H, Hajdúch M, Svobodová M, Brezinová J, Vostálová J, Novotný J.

Gynekologicko-porodnická klinika LF UP a FN Olomouc.

OBJECTIVE: To summarize available data concerning lycopene and male infertility treatment. DESIGN: Review article. SETTING: Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Olomouc. METHODS: Compilation of published data from scientific literature. CONCLUSIONS: The article describes occurrence, biochemistry, metabolism of lycopene and its role in male reproductive health.

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PMID: 18175515 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

108: Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Oct;61(10):1180-8. Epub 2007 Jul 18.
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Systemic levels of carotenoids from mangoes and papaya consumed in three forms (juice, fresh and dry slice).

Gouado I, Schweigert FJ, Ejoh RA, Tchouanguep MF, Camp JV.

Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry, University of Douala, Douala, Cameroon.

BACKGROUND: Vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem in Cameroon. Data on the bioavailability of carotenoid in fruits currently consumed in Cameroon are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To assess the systemic levels of carotenoids from mangoes and papaya consumed as juice, fresh or dried slices. METHODS: Two groups of seven healthy volunteers (24 and 25 years of age; body mass index: 21 and 22 kg/m(2) respectively for subjects fed mango and papaya), were submitted to three types of meal treatments (juice, fresh and dried fruit). On the experiment day, meals served to fasting subjects during breakfast, included bread, yogurt and one of the three forms of fruit. All the treatments lasted only one day during which blood samples were collected three times; during fasting (T(0)), 4 h (T(4)) and 8 h (T(8)) after the test meal. The carotenoids and retinol contents were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography method. RESULTS: From the major carotenoids present in papaya and mangoes, lutein, alpha-carotene and beta-carotene were found in considerable amounts. Lycopene and cryptoxanthin that were the major carotenoids in papaya samples appeared in low amounts in the chylomicrons. Significant correlations were observed between these carotenoids (at T(0), T(4) and T(8)). The three forms of consumption contributed to the rise of serum retinol levels. A comparison between the three forms revealed that papaya and mangoes consumed in form of juice or fresh fruit are the best forms because they had higher bioavailability values. CONCLUSION: Association of these different forms of consumptions could lead to a better availability of these fruits throughout the year and therefore efficiently contribute to improve vitamin A status of the population.

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PMID: 17637601 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

109: Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Oct;61(10):1196-200. Epub 2007 Feb 7.
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Effect of lycopene supplementation on insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Graydon R, Gilchrist SE, Young IS, Obermüller-Jevic U, Hasselwander O, Woodside JV.

Nutrition and Metabolism Group, Centre for Clinical and Population Science, Queen's University Belfast, Northern Ireland, Belfast, UK.

OBJECTIVE: Studies have suggested a link between lycopene and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). The aim of this study was to test the effect of lycopene supplementation on IGF-1 and binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) status in healthy male volunteers. DESIGN, SETTING, SUBJECTS AND INTERVENTION: This was a 4 week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of lycopene supplementation (15 mg/day) in healthy male volunteers (n=20). Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline and after 4 weeks. Samples were analysed for lycopene by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Changes in end points from baseline were compared in those who received placebo versus those who received the lycopene supplement. RESULTS: Median change in lycopene from baseline (post-supplement - baseline) was higher in subjects in the intervention than those on placebo (lycopene group 0.29 (0.09, 0.46); placebo group 0.03 (-0.11, 0.08) micromol/l; median (25th, 75th percentiles), P<0.01). There was no difference in median change in IGF-1 concentrations (lycopene group -0.6 (-2.6, 1.9); placebo group -1.15 (-2.88, 0.95) nmol/l, P=0.52), or median change in IGFBP-3 concentrations (lycopene group 245 (-109, 484); placebo group 101 (-34, 234) nmol/l, P=0.55) between intervention and control groups. Change in lycopene concentration was associated with the change in IGFBP-3 in the intervention group (r=0.78; P=0.008; n=10). CONCLUSIONS: Lycopene supplementation in healthy male subjects has no effect on IGF-1 or IGFBP-3 concentrations in a healthy male population. However, the association between change in lycopene concentration and change in IGFBP-3 in the intervention group suggests a potential effect of lycopene supplementation on IGFBP-3.

Publication Types:

PMID: 17299493 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

110: Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Oct;61(10):1167-73. Epub 2007 Jan 31.
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Effect of the main dietary antioxidants (carotenoids, gamma-tocopherol, polyphenols, and vitamin C) on alpha-tocopherol absorption.

Reboul E, Thap S, Perrot E, Amiot MJ, Lairon D, Borel P.

INSERM, U476 Nutrition Humaine et Lipides, Marseille, France.

OBJECTIVE: (R,R,R)-alpha-tocopherol is a fat-soluble antioxidant vitamin generally ingested with other dietary antioxidants. The objective of this study was to assess whether the main dietary antioxidant classes, that is carotenoids, polyphenols, vitamin C and gamma-tocopherol, affect the intestinal absorption of alpha-tocopherol. METHODS, DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: We evaluated first the effect of different combinations of antioxidants on (R,R,R)-alpha-tocopherol absorption by a human intestinal cell line (Caco-2 clone TC7). Then we compared the effect of two doses of a dietary antioxidant (lutein) on the postprandial chylomicron alpha-tocopherol responses to an alpha-tocopherol-rich meal. Eight healthy men ate two similar meals in a random order at a 1 month interval. The meals contained 24 mg alpha-tocopherol in sunflower oil plus either 18 or 36 mg lutein. Blood samples were collected during the postprandial periods to compare chylomicron alpha-tocopherol responses. RESULTS: A mixture of polyphenols (gallic acid, caffeic acid, (+)-catechin and naringenin) and a mixture of carotenoids (lycopene, beta-carotene and lutein) significantly impaired alpha-tocopherol absorption in Caco-2 cells (P<0.001 and P<0.0001, respectively). The inhibitory effect of gamma-tocopherol was close to significance (P=0.055). In contrast, vitamin C had no significant effect (P=0.158). Naringenin was the only polyphenol that significantly impaired alpha-tocopherol absorption. Postprandial alpha-tocopherol response was weakest at the highest dose of lutein (616+/-280 nmol/l h vs 1001+/-287 nmol/l h). The observed extent of reduction (-38%, P=0.069) supported the inhibitory effect of carotenoids observed in the Caco-2 experiments. CONCLUSION: Naringenin, carotenoids and probably gamma-tocopherol can impair alpha-tocopherol absorption whereas vitamin C and phenolic acids have no effect.

Publication Types:

PMID: 17268411 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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