Institut für Mangostan & natürliche Antioxidantien

LYCOPIN (Lycopene)

Aktuelle wissenschaftliche Studien | 71-90

71: J Exp Bot. 2008;59(6):1409-18. Epub 2008 Mar 14.
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Regulation of carotenoid biosynthetic genes expression and carotenoid accumulation in the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis under nutrient stress conditions.

Vidhyavathi R, Venkatachalam L, Sarada R, Ravishankar GA.

Plant Cell Biotechnology Department, Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore-570 020, India.

Haematococcus pluvialis, a green alga, accumulates carotenoids, predominantly astaxanthin, when exposed to stress conditions. In the present work, changes in the pigment profile and expression of carotenogenic genes under various nutrient stress conditions and their regulation were studied. Nutrient stress and higher light intensity in combination with NaCl/sodium acetate (SA) enhanced total carotenoid and total astaxanthin content to 32.0 and 24.5 mg g(-1) of dry biomass, respectively. Expression of carotenogenic genes, phytoene synthase (PSY), phytoene desaturase (PDS), lycopene cyclase (LCY), beta-carotene ketolase (BKT), and beta-carotene hydroxylase (CHY) were up-regulated under all the stress conditions studied. However, the extent of expression of carotenogenic genes varied with stress conditions. Nutrient stress and high light intensity induced expression of astaxanthin biosynthetic genes, BKT and CHY, transiently. Enhanced expression of these genes was observed with SA and NaCl/SA, while expression was delayed with NaCl. The maximum content of astaxanthin recorded in cells grown in medium with SA and NaCl/SA correlated with the expression profile of the astaxanthin biosynthetic genes. Studies using various inhibitors indicated that general carotenogenesis and secondary carotenoid induction were regulated at both the transcriptional and the cytoplasmic translational levels. The induction of general carotenoid synthesis genes was independent of cytoplasmic protein synthesis while BKT gene expression was dependent on de novo protein synthesis.

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PMID: 18343887 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

72: J Nutr. 2008 Jan;138(1):49-53.
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Lycopene inhibits disease progression in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia.

Schwarz S, Obermüller-Jevic UC, Hellmis E, Koch W, Jacobi G, Biesalski HK.

University of Hohenheim, Institute of Biological Chemistry and Nutrition, 70593 Stuttgart, Germany.

Lycopene is a promising nutritional component for chemoprevention of prostate cancer (PCa). A possibly beneficial role of lycopene in patients diagnosed with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), who are at increased risk of developing PCa, has been suggested, although clinical data are lacking. Therefore, this pilot study aimed to investigate the effects of lycopene supplementation in elderly men diagnosed with BPH. A total of 40 patients with histologically proven BPH free of PCa were randomized to receive either lycopene at a dose of 15 mg/d or placebo for 6 mo. The effects of the intervention on carotenoid status, clinical diagnostic markers of prostate proliferation, and symptoms of the disease were assessed. The primary endpoint of the study was the inhibition or reduction of increased serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. The 6-mo lycopene supplementation decreased PSA levels in men (P < 0.05), whereas there was no change in the placebo group. The plasma lycopene concentration increased in the group taking lycopene (P < 0.0001) but other plasma carotenoids were not affected. Whereas progression of prostate enlargement occurred in the placebo group as assessed by trans-rectal ultrasonography (P < 0.05) and digital rectal examination (P < 0.01), the prostate did not enlarge in the lycopene group. Symptoms of the disease, as assessed via the International Prostate Symptom Score questionnaire, were improved in both groups with a significantly greater effect in men taking lycopene supplements. In conclusion, lycopene inhibited progression of BPH.

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PMID: 18156403 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

73: J Prev Med Pub Health. 2008 Jan;41(1):39-44.
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[Associations of non alcoholic fatty liver with the metabolic syndrome and serum carotenoids]

[Article in Korean]

Park SK, Lee HJ, Lee DH, Lee SK, Chun BY, Kim SA, Lee HS, Son HK, Kim SH.

Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Korea.

OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to investigate the associations of non alcoholic fatty liver with metabolic syndrome and the serum carotenoids. METHODS: This study was conducted in a general hospital in South Korea from November, 2004 to August, 2005. The study subjects were 350 sampled persons who were aged from 40 years and older (males: 180, females: 170). They were grouped into the normal, mild and severe groups according to fat accumulation in their livers, as determined by ultrasonography. We analyzed the association between non alcoholic fatty liver and metabolic syndrome by multiple logistic regression analysis and we analyzed the association between non alcoholic fatty liver and the serum carotenoids by a general linear model(ANCOVA). RESULTS: After adjustment for the effect of potential covariates, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was associated with fat accumulation in the liver (p trend <0.001). If the odds ratio of normal group is 1.00, then that of the mild group is 2.80 (95% C.I=1.17-6.71) and that of the severe group is 7.29 (95% C.I=2.76-19.30). The prevalence of metabolic alterations fitting the criteria of metabolic syndrome, according to the class of fat accumulation in the liver, was significantly increased, except for criteria of high blood pressure, a large waist circumference and low HDL (high density lipoprotein) cholesterol level (p trend <0.001). The level of serum beta-carotene was decreased according to the class of fat accumulation in the liver (p trend=0.036), but the levels of serum alpha-carotene, lycopene, beta-cryptoxanthin and lutein were not decreased. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that non alcoholic fatty liver was associated with metabolic syndrome and with the serum beta-carotene level.

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PMID: 18250604 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

74: J Soc Integr Oncol. 2008 Winter;6(1):29-36.
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Lycopene in the prevention of prostate cancer.

Dahan K, Fennal M, Kumar NB.

Department of Interdisciplinary Oncology, University of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa, FL 33612-9416, USA.

Based on the evidence from epidemiologic, animal, and in vitro data and human clinical trials, it is evident that lycopene, a non-provitamin A carotenoid, is a promising agent for prostate cancer chemoprevention. It is also clear that the form of lycopene used (purified versus food sources), dose of lycopene and concomitant use with other carotenoids and antioxidants, duration of exposure, specific target populations, and stage of disease appear to play a major role in determining agonistic or antagonistic effects. Based on our review, there is enough evidence to warrant use of lycopene in phase I and II clinical trials to examine its safety and efficacy as a potential chemopreventive agent for prostate cancer. The objective of this article is to review this evidence from epidemiologic, animal, in vitro, and clinical trials and provide the need and rationale to examine further the role of lycopene for prostate cancer prevention.

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PMID: 18302908 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

75: Prep Biochem Biotechnol. 2008;38(3):246-56.
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Effect of biomass pre-treatment and solvent extraction on beta-carotene and lycopene recovery from Blakeslea trispora cells.

Papaioannou E, Roukas T, Liakopoulou-Kyriakides M.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.

The production of carotenoids from Blakeslea trispora cells in a synthetic medium has been reported, with the main products being beta-carotene, lycopene, and gamma-carotene. The effect of biomass pretreatment and solvent extraction on their selective recovery is reported here. Eight solvents of class II and III of the International Conference of Harmonization: ethanol, methanol, acetone, 2-propanol, pentane, hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethyl ether, and HPLC analysis were used for the evaluation of their selectivities towards the three main carotenoids with regard to different biomass pre-treatment. The average C(max) values (maximum concentration of caronoids in a specific solvent) were estimated to 16 mg/L with the five out of eight solvents investigated, whereas methanol, pentane, and hexane gave lower values of 10, 11, and 9 mg/L, respectively. The highest carotenoid yield was obtained in the case of wet biomass, where 44-56% is recovered with one solvent and three extractions and the rest is recovered only after subsequent treatment with acetone; thus, four extractions of 2.5 h are needed. Two extractions of 54 min are enough to recover carotenoids from dehydrated biomass, with the disadvantage of a high degree of degradation. Our results showed that, for maximum carotenoid recovery, ethyl ether, 2-propanol, and ethanol could be successfully used with biomass without prior treatment, whereas fractions enriched in beta-carotene or lycopene can be obtained by extraction with the proper solvent, thus avoiding degradation due to time-consuming processes.

PMID: 18569871 [PubMed - in process]

76: Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007 Dec 21;364(3):578-82. Epub 2007 Oct 15.
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Serum from rats fed red or yellow tomatoes induces Connexin43 expression independently from lycopene in a prostate cancer cell line.

Gitenay D, Lyan B, Talvas J, Mazur A, Georgé S, Caris-Veyrat C, Rock E.

Unité de Nutrition Humaine, INRA, Centre de Clermont-Ferrand/Theix, 63122 Saint-Genès-Champanelle, France.

Epidemiologic studies suggested a protective effect of tomatoes against prostate cancer brought by lycopene, a carotenoid conferring the red colour of tomatoes. However, intervention studies on patients have shown that the preventive effect of tomato was more potent than that of lycopene. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of red tomato, yellow tomato (devoid of lycopene) and lycopene on Connexin43 (Cx43) expression, a protein regulating cell growth, on a prostate cancer cell line expressing the androgen receptor. Cells were incubated with serum from rats fed a control diet (CS) or control diet supplemented with red tomato (RTS), yellow tomato (YTS) or lycopene beadlets (LBS). After exposure of the cells to RTS or YTS for 48h, the expression of Cx43 was significantly increased compared to cells exposed to CS. Whereas LBS effect was not significantly different. The cells incubated with RTS and LBS had similar levels of lycopene, while those incubated with YTS contained no lycopene. These data first show that serum nutritionally enriched with red and yellow tomatoes could up-regulate Cx43 turn-over in PC3AR cells independently from lycopene level. Within the physiological approach used in the present study, it can be concluded that compounds other than lycopene contribute to the preventive effect of tomatoes.

PMID: 17959141 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

77: Genet Mol Res. 2007 Dec 11;6(4):1151-68.
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Cassava genetic resources and their utilization for breeding of the crop.

Nassar NM.

Departamento de Genética e Morfologia, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília , DF, Brasil.

Wild cassava relatives are perennials and vary in growth pattern from nearly acaulescent subshrubs to small trees. They have been used as a source of useful characters such as high protein content, apomixis, resistance to mealybug and mosaic disease, and tolerance to drought. Indigenous clones are a potential source of beta-carotene and lycopene. Apomixis genes have been transferred to the crop successfully through interspeci fi c hybridization, and apomictic clones arising from these hybrids are now being grown at the Universidade de Brasília. Interspeci fi c hybrids produced earlier were polyploidized and had their fertility restored. Different useful types of chimera were also produced.

Publication Types:

PMID: 18273809 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

78: Public Health Nutr. 2007 Dec 6:1-9. [Epub ahead of print]
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Carotenoid intakes, assessed by food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs), are associated with serum carotenoid concentrations in the Jackson Heart Study: validation of the Jackson Heart Study Delta NIRI Adult FFQs.

Talegawkar SA, Johnson EJ, Carithers TC, Taylor HA, Bogle ML, Tucker KL.

1Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, 711 Washington Street, Boston, MA 02111, USA.

OBJECTIVES: Intake and status of carotenoids have been associated with chronic disease. The objectives of this study were to examine the association between carotenoid intakes as measured by two regional food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and their corresponding measures in serum, and to report on dietary food sources of carotenoids in Jackson Heart Study (JHS) participants. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of data for 402 African American men and women participating in the Diet and Physical Activity Sub-Study (DPASS) of the JHS. RESULTS: Mean serum carotenoid concentrations and intakes in this population were comparable to those reported for the general US population. After adjustment for covariates, correlations between serum and dietary measures of each carotenoid, for the average of the recalls (deattenuated), the short FFQ and the long FFQ, respectively, were: 0.37, 0.35 and 0.21 for alpha-carotene; 0.35, 0.26 and 0.28 for total (diet plus supplements) beta-carotene; 0.25, 0.17 and 0.20 for dietary beta-carotene; 0.42, 0.34 and 0.26 for beta-cryptoxanthin; 0.33, 0.15 and 0.17 for lutein plus zeaxanthin; and 0.37, 0.19 and 0.14 for lycopene. Major dietary sources of alpha-carotene were orange vegetables; of beta-carotene and lutein plus zeaxanthin, mustard, turnip and collard greens; of beta-cryptoxanthin, orange juice; and of lycopene, tomato juice. CONCLUSIONS: On average, carotenoid intakes and serum concentrations are not lower in this southern African American population than the general US population. The two regional FFQs developed for a southern US population and used as dietary assessment tools in the JHS appear to provide reasonably valid information for most of these carotenoids.

PMID: 18053294 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

79: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Dec;293(6):E1820-7. Epub 2007 Oct 2.
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Effects of lycopene on the induction of foam cell formation by modified LDL.

Napolitano M, De Pascale C, Wheeler-Jones C, Botham KM, Bravo E.

Istituto Superiore di Sanitá, Dept. of Haematology, Oncology and Molecular Medicine, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy.

The effect of lycopene on macrophage foam cell formation induced by modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was studied. Human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM) were incubated with lycopene in the presence or absence of native LDL (nLDL) or LDL modified by oxidation (oxLDL), aggregation (aggLDL), or acetylation (acLDL). The cholesterol content, lipid synthesis, scavenger receptor activity, and the secretion of inflammatory [interleukin (IL)-1beta and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha] and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines was determined. Lycopene was found to decrease the synthesis of cholesterol ester in incubations without LDL or with oxLDL while triacylglycerol synthesis was reduced in the presence of oxLDL and aggLDL. Scavenger receptor activity as assessed by the uptake of acLDL was decreased by approximately 30% by lycopene. In addition, lycopene inhibited IL-10 secretion by up to 74% regardless of the presence of nLDL or aggLDL but did not affect IL-1beta or TNF-alpha release. Lycopene also reduced the relative abundance of mRNA transcripts for scavenger receptor A (SR-A) in THP-1 macrophages treated with aggLDL. These findings suggest that lycopene may reduce macrophage foam cell formation induced by modified LDL by decreasing lipid synthesis and downregulating the activity and expression of SR-A. However, these effects are accompanied by impaired secretion of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, suggesting that lycopene may also exert a concomitant proinflammatory effect.

PMID: 17911344 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

80: Br J Nutr. 2007 Dec;98(6):1251-8. Epub 2007 Jul 9.
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Tomato juice decreases LDL cholesterol levels and increases LDL resistance to oxidation.

Silaste ML, Alfthan G, Aro A, Kesäniemi YA, Hörkkö S.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, 90014 Oulu, Finland.

High dietary intakes of tomato products are often associated with a reduced risk of CVD, but the atheroprotective mechanisms have not been established. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of increased dietary intake of tomato products on plasma lipids and LDL oxidation. The diet intervention included a baseline period, a 3-week low tomato diet (no tomato products allowed) and a 3-week high tomato diet (400 ml tomato juice and 30 mg tomato ketchup daily). Twenty-one healthy study subjects participated in the study. Total cholesterol concentration was reduced by 5.9 (sd 10) % (P = 0.002) and LDL cholesterol concentration by 12.9 (sd 17.0) % (P = 0.0002) with the high tomato diet compared to the low tomato diet. The changes in total and LDL cholesterol concentrations correlated significantly with the changes in serum lycopene (r 0.56, P = 0.009; r 0.60, P = 0.004, total and LDL, respectively), beta-carotene (r 0.58, P = 0.005; r 0.70, P < 0.001) and gamma-carotene concentrations (r 0.64, P = 0.002; r 0.64, P = 0.002). The level of circulating LDL to resist formation of oxidized phospholipids increased 13 % (P = 0.02) in response to the high tomato diet. In conclusion, a high dietary intake of tomato products had atheroprotective effects, it significantly reduced LDL cholesterol levels, and increased LDL resistance to oxidation in healthy normocholesterolaemic adults. These atheroprotective features associated with changes in serum lycopene, beta-carotene and gamma-carotene levels.

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PMID: 17617941 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

81: Eur J Nutr. 2007 Dec;46(8):468-75. Epub 2007 Nov 17.
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Comparison of lycopene and tomato effects on biomarkers of oxidative stress in vitamin E deficient rats.

Gitenay D, Lyan B, Rambeau M, Mazur A, Rock E.

Equipe Stress Métabolique et Micronutriments, Unité de Nutrition Humaine, Institut National de Recherche Agronomique, Centre de Clermont-Ferrand/Theix, 63122 Saint-Genès Champanelle, France.

BACKGROUND: Cohort studies suggested that individuals with higher intake of tomatoes and tomato products have a lower risk of degenerative diseases. Lycopene, an antioxidant and antiproliferative carotenoid, has been hypothesized to be responsible for the health benefits of tomatoes. However, studies demonstrated a higher potential of tomatoes compared to lycopene to reduce oxidative stress or carcinogenesis. AIM OF THE STUDY: Our study aimed at distinguishing lycopene effect from that of tomato on oxidative stress, by using yellow tomato, a tomato variety devoid of lycopene. METHODS: Effects of feeding with none (control), 16% freeze-dried yellow tomato (YT), 16% freeze-dried red tomato (RT) or 0.05% lycopene beadlets (LB) were compared in a rat model with mild oxidative stress induced by low vitamin E diet (LVED). Four groups of 10 rats were fed ad libitum for 6 weeks. Physiological parameters such as ingesta, body, spleen and liver weights, cholesterol and triglycerides (TG) levels were assessed. Lycopene and vitamin E concentrations and oxidative stress biomarkers were measured in the plasma and/or liver and/or heart tissue of the rats. RESULTS: RT, YT, and LB had no effect on rats' ingesta, body and spleen weights. RT, YT and LB had no effect on plasma cholesterol concentration. RT decreased TG level compared to control, YT and LB (P < 0.05). Rats fed RT or LB accumulated lycopene in plasma in contrast with rats fed YT. Heart level of thiobarbituric reactive species (TBARS) in rats fed RT or YT was lower than that in the control and the LB fed rats (P < 0.05). Despite similar concentrations of lycopene in plasma and liver, rats fed LB showed a significantly higher heart level of TBARS than rats fed tomatoes. RT increased erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (eSOD) activity compared with LB and nitric oxide (NO) level compared with control and LB. LB decreased ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) level compared with control, RT and LB (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our study showed for the first time that tomatoes, containing or not containing lycopene, have a higher potential than lycopene to attenuate and or to reverse oxidative stress-related parameters in a mild oxidative stress context.

PMID: 18026867 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

82: Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2007 Dec;58(8):603-11.
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Evaluation of different coloured carrot cultivars on antioxidative capacity based on their carotenoid and phenolic contents.

Grassmann J, Schnitzler WH, Habegger R.

Life Science Center Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, Germany.

We compared five new carrot cultivars with a conventional cultivar in consideration of their content of carotenoids, phenolics and according antioxidative capacity. We chose the following cultivars: orange, white, yellow, red, solid-coloured purple and purple with an orange core. Examinations were conducted over two cultivation periods (2003 and 2004). The white, yellow and solid-coloured purple cultivars showed quite low contents of carotenoids, but the solid-coloured purple contained most phenolic compounds. The red cultivar was the only that contained lycopene. The content of carotenoids varied slightly between the two years; alpha-carotene showed noteworthy differences in the orange cultivar and the purple cultivar with an orange core. The higher alpha-carotene content resulted in a higher antioxidative capacity. Also, the lycopene content in the red cultivar was higher in 2004 than in 2003, which again lead to an increased antioxidative capacity. In the case of phenolics, higher values were found for the purple-coloured cultivars in 2004, which only in the case of the purple cultivar with an orange core, however, led to a higher antioxidative capacity.

PMID: 17852466 [PubMed - in process]

83: J Am Coll Nutr. 2007 Dec;26(6):655-62.
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The lipoprotein lipase serine 447 stop polymorphism is associated with altered serum carotenoid concentrations in the Stanislas Family Study.

Herbeth B, Gueguen S, Leroy P, Siest G, Visvikis-Siest S.

INSERM U525, Université Henri Poincaré, Faculté de Pharmacie, 30 rue Lionnois, F54000 Nancy, France.

BACKGROUND: Carotenoids are mainly carried by lipoproteins in blood, however little is known about the influence of polymorphisms of apolipoproteins (apo), cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) involved in serum lipid metabolism. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to analyze whether serum concentrations of 5 carotenoids (lutein-zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene) are associated with common polymorphisms of Apo E, Apo B, Apo CIII, CETP, and LPL. METHODS: Serum concentrations of lutein-zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, alpha-carotene, and beta-carotene were measured and polymorphisms of Apo E (cys112arg and arg158cys), Apo B (thr71ile), Apo CIII [C(-482)T, Apo CIII T(-455)C, Apo CIII C1100T, Apo CIII C3175G, Apo CIII T3206G], CETP (ile405val), and LPL (S447X) were determined in a sample of 447 children and adults drawn from the Stanislas Study. RESULTS: After adjustment for age, sex, smoking, physical activity, oral contraceptive use, BMI, serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, and fruit and vegetable intakes, carriers vs. non carriers of the lipoprotein lipase X447 allele had significant lower concentrations of lutein-zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, alpha-carotene and beta-carotene; differences vs. S447S genotype being the largest for X447X: -18.8%, -50.5%, -54.8% and -47.1%, for the four carotenoid fractions, respectively. No significant association was noticed for lycopene concentration. None of the other tested polymorphisms was significantly related to the serum carotenoid concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Our investigation for the first time demonstrates that LPL S447X polymorphism could alter serum concentrations of carotenoids in healthy individuals, independently of serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentration. These data indicate that genetic factors could be involved in the variability of carotenoid bioavailability and bioconversion.

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PMID: 18187430 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

84: J Nutr. 2007 Dec;137(12):2653-9.
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Human plasma levels of vitamin E and carotenoids are associated with genetic polymorphisms in genes involved in lipid metabolism.

Borel P, Moussa M, Reboul E, Lyan B, Defoort C, Vincent-Baudry S, Maillot M, Gastaldi M, Darmon M, Portugal H, Planells R, Lairon D.

INSERM, U476 Nutrition Humaine et Lipides, INRA, UMR1260, and Univ Méditerranée Aix-Marseille 2, Faculté de Médecine, IPHM-IFR 125, Marseille, F-13385 France.

Vitamin E and carotenoids are fat-soluble micronutrients carried by plasma lipoproteins. Their plasma concentrations are governed by several factors, some of which are genetic, but data on these genetic factors remain scarce. We hypothesized that genes involved in lipid metabolism, i.e. the genes implicated in intestinal uptake, intracellular trafficking, and the lipoprotein distribution of lipids, play a role in the plasma concentrations of these micronutrients. To verify this hypothesis, we assessed whether the plasma status of vitamin E and carotenoids is related to genes involved in lipid metabolism. Fasting plasma vitamin E (alpha- and gamma-tocopherol) and carotenoid (alpha- and beta-carotene, lutein, lycopene, beta-cryptoxanthin, and zeaxanthin) concentrations were measured in 48 males and 80 females. The following genes were genotyped [single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP)]: apolipoprotein (apo) A-IV, apo B, apo E, lipoprotein lipase, and scavenger-receptor class B type I (SR-BI). Plasma alpha-tocopherol concentrations were different (P < 0.05) in subjects bearing different SNP in apo A-IV, apo E, and SR-BI. Plasma gamma-tocopherol concentrations were different (P < 0.05) in subjects bearing different SNP in apo A-IV and SR-BI. Alpha-carotene concentrations were different (P < 0.05) in subjects bearing different SNP in SR-BI. Beta-carotene concentrations were different (P < 0.05) in subjects bearing different SNP in apo B and SR-BI. Lycopene concentrations were different (P < 0.05) in subjects bearing different SNP in apo A-IV and apo B. Beta-cryptoxanthin concentrations were different (P < 0.05) in subjects bearing different SNP in SR-BI. Plasma lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations did not differ in subjects bearing different SNP. Most of the differences remained significant after the plasma micronutrients were adjusted for plasma triglycerides and cholesterol. These results suggest that genes involved in lipid metabolism influence the plasma concentrations of these fat-soluble micronutrients.

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PMID: 18029479 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

85: Life Sci. 2007 Nov 10;81(21-22):1509-17. Epub 2007 Oct 2.
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Lycopene inhibits PDGF-BB-induced signaling and migration in human dermal fibroblasts through interaction with PDGF-BB.

Chiang HS, Wu WB, Fang JY, Chen DF, Chen BH, Huang CC, Chen YT, Hung CF.

School of Medicine, Fu-Jen Catholic University, No. 510, Chung-Cheng Road, Hsinchuang, Taipei Hsien, Taiwan.

In melanoma development and progression, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) has been suggested to modulate the microenvironment, especially stromal fibroblasts, to the benefit of melanoma growth, invasion, and metastasis. Lycopene, a natural carotenoid that is abundant in tomato, has been shown to inhibit proliferation of several types of cancer cells. However, little attention has been paid to skin fibroblasts and melanoma cells. In the present study, we determined the effects of lycopene on stromal fibroblasts and their interactions with melanoma cells. We found that lycopene inhibited PDGF-BB-induced human Hs68 skin fibroblast migration on gelatin and collagen. Further analysis showed that lycopene inhibited PDGF-BB-induced signaling in human Hs68 and primary cultured skin fibroblasts. PDGF-BB-induced phosphorylation of PDGF receptor beta (PDGFR-beta), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) was attenuated by lycopene in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas the total expression of each protein was not affected. Interestingly, dot binding assay revealed that lycopene could directly bind to human PDGF-BB in PBS and human plasma, indicating that lycopene can bind to PDGF-BB in both in vitro and in vivo conditions. In functional studies, lycopene inhibited melanoma-induced fibroblast migration in a noncontact coculture system and attenuated signaling in fibroblasts simulated by melanoma-derived conditioned medium. Our results provide the first evidence showing that lycopene is an effective inhibitor of migration of stromal fibroblasts and this effect may contribute to its antitumor activity.

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PMID: 17950366 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

86: J Phys Chem B. 2007 Nov 8;111(44):12898-908. Epub 2007 Oct 17.
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Relative antioxidant efficiency of a large series of carotenoids in terms of one electron transfer reactions.

Galano A.

Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Eje Central Lázaro Cárdenas 152, 007730 México DF, México.

The relative antioxidant efficiency, expressed as electron donating capability, of a large series of carotenoids has been studied using density functional theory. Their reactivity toward nine different radicals has been modeled as well as the electron transfer between pairs of carotenoids, one of which is present as a radical cation. The influence of the solvent polarity has also been studied. Torulene was found to be the most easily oxidized carotenoid, followed by lycopene. This higher reactivity is proposed in the present work for the first time, and the potential implications of such a finding are discussed. Since torulene has not been previously studied, compared to other carotenoids in terms of oxidation potentials, further experimental studies are suggested in order to confirm or reject this prediction. Ionization potential seems to be a magnitude calculable at low computational cost that correctly predicts the relative ease of oxidation in a series of carotenoids. The nuclear reorganization energy associated with electron-transfer reactions has been calculated in a very simple but apparently efficient way that allows computation of free energy barriers and relative rate constants in good agreement with the experimental values. In addition, an additive correction is proposed to include the effect of increasing the size of basis sets on the energies of Car(n) --> Car(n-1)(*+) processes. The general agreement between different calculated magnitudes and the corresponding available experimental data supports the predictions from this work.

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PMID: 17941663 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

87: Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Nov;86(5):1456-62.
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Lycopene supplementation elevates circulating insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 and -2 concentrations in persons at greater risk of colorectal cancer.

Vrieling A, Voskuil DW, Bonfrer JM, Korse CM, van Doorn J, Cats A, Depla AC, Timmer R, Witteman BJ, van Leeuwen FE, Van't Veer LJ, Rookus MA, Kampman E.

Division of Experimental Therapy, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

BACKGROUND: Higher circulating insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) concentrations have been related to a greater risk of cancer. Lycopene intake is inversely associated with cancer risk, and experimental studies have shown that it may affect the IGF system, possibly through an effect on IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs). OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to investigate the effect of an 8-wk supplementation with tomato-derived lycopene (30 mg/d) on serum concentrations of total IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2, and IGFBP-3. DESIGN: We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded crossover study in 40 men and 31 postmenopausal women with a family history of colorectal cancer, a personal history of colorectal adenoma, or both. RESULTS: Lycopene supplementation significantly (P = 0.01) increased serum IGFBP-1 concentrations in women (median relative difference between serum IGFBP-1 concentrations after lycopene supplementation and after placebo, 21.7%). Serum IGFBP-2 concentrations were higher in both men and women after lycopene supplementation than after placebo, but to a lesser extent (mean relative difference 8.2%; 95% CI: 0.7%, 15.6% in men and 7.8%; 95% CI: -5.0%, 20.6% in women). Total IGF-I, IGF-II, and IGFBP-3 concentrations were not significantly altered by lycopene supplementation. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study known to show that lycopene supplementation may increase circulating IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 concentrations. Because of high interindividual variations in IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 effects, these results should be confirmed in larger randomized intervention studies.

Publication Types:

PMID: 17991659 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

88: Biochem Soc Trans. 2007 Nov;35(Pt 5):1377-8.
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Inhibitory effect of lycopene on PDGF-BB-induced signalling and migration in human dermal fibroblasts: a possible target for cancer.

Wu WB, Chiang HS, Fang JY, Hung CF.

School of Medicine, Fu-Jen Catholic University, Taipei Hsien, Taiwan.

Tumours are complex tissues composed of both matrix proteins and stromal cells such as fibroblasts and inflammatory cells. Tumour progression is often the result of dynamic interactions between the tumour cells and their surroundings. Lycopene, a natural carotenoid that is abundant in tomato, has been shown to inhibit proliferation of several types of cancer cells through arrest of tumour cell-cycle progression, IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor 1) signalling transduction, induction of apoptosis etc. However, in our recent study, we found that lycopene inhibited PDGF-BB (platelet-derived growth factor-BB)-induced signalling and cell migration in human cultured skin fibroblasts through a novel mechanism of action, i.e. direct binding to PDGF-BB. Trapping of PDGF by lycopene also compromised melanoma-induced fibroblast migration and attenuated signalling transduction in fibroblasts simulated by melanoma-derived conditioned medium, suggesting that lycopene may interfere with tumour-stroma interactions. The trapping activity of lycopene on PDGF suggests that it may act as an inhibitor on stromal cells, tumour cells and their interactions, which may contribute to its anti-tumour activity.

Publication Types:

PMID: 17956356 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

89: Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007 Nov;16(11):2193-203.
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Chemoprevention of prostate cancer through dietary agents: progress and promise.

Syed DN, Khan N, Afaq F, Mukhtar H.

Department of Dermatology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706.

Prostate cancer (CaP) is second only to lung cancer as the cause of cancer-related deaths in American men and is responsible for over 29,000 deaths per year. One promising approach to reduce the incidence of CaP is through chemoprevention, which has been recognized as a plausible and cost-effective approach to reduce cancer morbidity and mortality by inhibiting precancerous events before the occurrence of clinical disease. Indeed, CaP is an ideal candidate disease for chemoprevention because it is typically diagnosed in the elderly population with a relatively slower rate of growth and progression, and therefore, even a modest delay in the development of cancer, achieved through pharmacologic or nutritional intervention, could result in substantial reduction in the incidence of clinically detectable disease. In this review, we have summarized the recent investigations and mechanistic studies on CaP chemoprevention using dietary agents, such as selenium, vitamins D and E, lycopene, phytoestrogens, flavonoids, and green tea polyphenols. Well-designed trials are required to delineate the potential clinical usefulness of these agents through issues, such as determining the optimal period and route of administration, systemic bioavailability, optimal dosing and toxicity of the agent, and single or combinatorial approach. It is hoped that, combining the knowledge based on agents with targets, effective approaches for CaP chemoprevention can be established.

Publication Types:

PMID: 18006906 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

90: Electrophoresis. 2007 Nov;28(22):4120-7.
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Fast determination of prominent carotenoids in tomato fruits by CEC using methacrylate ester-based monolithic columns.

Adalid AM, Herrero-Martínez JM, Roselló S, Maquieira A, Nuez F.

COMAV, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

In this study, the major carotenoids (beta-carotene and lycopene) present in tomato fruits were analyzed by CEC with a methacrylate ester-based monolithic column. The effects of the porogenic solvent ratio, and the hydrophobicity of bulk monomer employed were examined on carotenoids separations. A fast separation of these analytes was achieved in less than 5.0 min in a mobile phase containing 35% THF, 30% ACN, 30% methanol, and 5% of a 5 mM Tris aqueous buffer, pH 8, with lauryl methacrylate-based monoliths. The CEC method was evaluated in terms of detection limit and reproducibility (retention time, area, and column preparation) with values below 1.6 microg/mL and 7.2%, respectively. The proposed procedure was successfully applied to the determination of both carotenoids in fruits of several tomato-related species and its usefulness to analyze large series of samples for nutritional quality screening trials in tomato breeding programs is demonstrated. To our knowledge, this is the first work that exploits the powerful and user-friendly monolithic technology for quality breeding and germplasm evaluation program purposes.

Publication Types:

PMID: 17960534 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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